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Languages   13 languages are spoken in Indonesia. We have 54 products available for 12 of those languages.

Capital: Jakarta
Population: 212,000,000
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Indonesia Map


Location: Southeastern Asia, archipelago between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean

Geographic coordinates: 5 00 S, 120 00 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

total : 1,919,440 sq km
land: 1,826,440 sq km
water: 93,000 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly less than three times the size of Texas

Land boundaries:
total: 2,602 km
border countries: Malaysia 1,782 km, Papua New Guinea 820 km

Coastline: 54,716 km

Maritime claims: measured from claimed archipelagic baselines
exclusive economic zone : 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands

Terrain: mostly coastal lowlands; larger islands have interior mountains

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Puncak Jaya 5,030 m

Natural resources: petroleum, tin, natural gas, nickel, timber, bauxite, copper, fertile soils, coal, gold, silver

Land use:
arable land: 10%
permanent crops: 7%
permanent pastures: 7%
forests and woodland : 62%
other: 14% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 45,970 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: occasional floods, severe droughts, tsunamis, earthquakes

Environment - current issues: deforestation; water pollution from industrial wastes, sewage; air pollution in urban areas

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Desertification, Marine Life Conservation

Geography - note: archipelago of 17,000 islands (6,000 inhabited); straddles Equator; strategic location astride or along major sea lanes from Indian Ocean to Pacific Ocean


Population: 231,328,092 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years : 31% (male 33,313,149; female 32,367,905)
15-64 years: 65% (male 67,824,993; female 68,226,617)
65 years and over: 4% (male 3,557,886; female 4,483,588) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.54% (2002 est.)

Birth rate: 21.87 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate: 6.28 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.21 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years : 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 39.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population:68.63 years
male:66.24 years
female: 71.13 years (2002 est.)

Total fertility rate:2.54 children born/woman (2002 est.)

noun: Indonesian(s)
adjective: Indonesian

Ethnic groups: Javanese 45%, Sundanese 14%, Madurese 7.5%, coastal Malays 7.5%, other 26%

Religions:Muslim 88%, Protestant 5%, Roman Catholic 3%, Hindu 2%, Buddhist 1%, other 1% (1998)

Languages: Bahasa Indonesia (official, modified form of Malay), English, Dutch, local dialects, the most widely spoken of which is Javanese

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 83.8%
male: 89.6%
female: 78% (1995 est.)


Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Indonesia
conventional short form: Indonesia
local long form : Republik Indonesia
local short form: Indonesia
former: Netherlands East Indies; Dutch East Indies

Data code: ID

Government type: republic

National capital: Jakarta

Administrative divisions: 27 provinces (propinsi-propinsi, singular - propinsi), 2 special regions* (daerah-daerah istimewa, singular - daerah istimewa), and 1 special capital city district** (daerah khusus ibukota); Aceh*, Bali, Banten, Bengkulu, Gorontalo, Jakarta Raya**, Jambi, Jawa Barat, Jawa Tengah, Jawa Timur, Kalimantan Barat, Kalimantan Selatan, Kalimantan Tengah, Kalimantan Timur, Kepulauan Bangka Belitung, Lampung, Maluku, Maluku Utara, Nusa Tenggara Barat, Nusa Tenggara Timur, Papua, Riau, Sulawesi Selatan, Sulawesi Tengah, Sulawesi Tenggara, Sulawesi Utara, Sumatera Barat, Sumatera Selatan, Sumatera Utara, Yogyakarta*; note - with the implementation of decentralization on 1 January 2001, the 357 districts (regencies) have become the key administrative units responsible for providing most government services
note: following the 30 August 1999 provincial referendum for independence which was overwhelmingly approved by the people of Timor Timur and the October 1999 concurrence of Indonesia's national legislature, the name East Timor was adopted as a provisional name for the political entity formerly known as Propinsi Timor Timur; East Timor gained its formal independence on 20 May 2002

Independence: 17 August 1945 (proclaimed independence; on 27 December 1949, Indonesia became legally independent from the Netherlands)

National holiday: Independence Day, 17 August (1945)

Constitution: August 1945, abrogated by Federal Constitution of 1949 and Provisional Constitution of 1950, restored 5 July 1959

Legal system: based on Roman-Dutch law, substantially modified by indigenous concepts and by new criminal procedures code; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 17 years of age; universal and married persons regardless of age

Executive branch:
chief of state: President President MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri (since 23 July 2001) and Vice President Hamzah HAZ (since 26 July 2001); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri (since 23 July 2001) and Vice President Hamzah HAZ (since 26 July 2001); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections: president and vice president elected separately by the People's Consultative Assembly or MPR for five-year terms; selection of president last held 23 July 2001 (next to be held NA 2006); selection of vice president last held 26 July 2001 (next to be held NA 2006)
note: the People's Consultative Assembly (Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat or MPR) includes the House of Representatives (Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat or DPR) plus 200 indirectly selected members; it meets every five years to elect the president and vice president and to approve broad outlines of national policy and also has yearly meetings to consider constitutional and legislative changes
election results : MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri elected president, receiving 591 votes in favor (91 abstentions); Hamzah HAZ elected vice president, receiving 340 votes in favor (237 against)

Legislative branch: unicameral House of Representatives or Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat (DPR) (500 seats; 462 elected by popular vote, 38 are appointed military representatives; members serve five-year terms)
elections:last held 7 June 1999 (next to be held NA 2004)
election results: percent of vote by party - PDI-P 37.4%, Golkar 20.9%, PKB 17.4%, PPP 10.7%, PAN 7.3%, PBB 1.8%, other 4.5%; seats by party - PDI-P 154, Golkar 120, PPP 58, PKB 51, PAN 35, PBB 14, other 30; note - subsequent to the election, there has been a change in the distribution of seats; the new distribution is: PDI-P 153, Golkar 120, PPP 58, PKB 51, PAN 35, PBB 13, other 32

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Mahkamah Agung), the judges are appointed by the president

Political parties and leaders: Golkar (de facto ruling political party based on functional groups), HARMOKO, general chairman; Indonesia Democracy Party (PDI - federation of former Nationalist and Christian Parties), SOERJADI, chairman; Development Unity Party (PPP, federation of former Islamic parties), Ismail Hasan METAREUM, chairman

International organization participation: APEC, AsDB, ASEAN, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-15, G-19, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, Mekong Group, NAM, OIC, OPEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMIBH, UNMOP, UNOMIG, UNPREDEP, UNTAES, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador SOEMADI Brotodiningrat
chancery: 2020 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 775-5200
FAX: [1] (202) 775-5365
consulate(s) general : Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: AmbassadorRalph L. BOYCE
embassy: Medan Merdeka Selatan 5, Jakarta
mailing address: Unit 8129, Box 1, APO AP 96520
telephone : [62] (21) 344-2211
FAX: [62] (21) 386-2259
consulate(s) general: Surabaya

Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; similar to the flag of Monaco, which is shorter; also similar to the flag of Poland, which is white (top) and red


Economy - overview: Indonesia, a vast polyglot nation, faces severe economic development problems, stemming from secessionist movements and the low level of security in the regions, the lack of reliable legal recourse in contract disputes, corruption, weaknesses in the banking system, and strained relations with the IMF. Investor confidence will remain low and few new jobs will be created under these circumstances. In November 2001, Indonesia agreed with the IMF on a series of economic reforms in 2002, thus enabling further IMF disbursements. Keys to future growth remain internal reform, the build-up of the confidence of international donors and investors, and a strong comeback in the global economy.

GDP: purchasing power parity -$687 billion (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 3.3% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $3,000 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture : 17%
industry: 41%
services: 42% (2001 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 11.5% (2001 est.)

Labor force:
total:99 million (1999)
by occupation: agriculture 45%, industry 16%, services 39% (1999 est.)

Unemployment rate: 8% (2001 est.)

revenues: $26 billion
expenditures: $30 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)

Industries: petroleum and natural gas, textiles, mining, cement, chemical fertilizers, plywood, food, rubber; tourism

Industrial production growth rate: 3.5% (2001 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 16.27 million kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 92.575 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 86.095 billion kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products: rice, cassava (tapioca), peanuts, rubber, cocoa, coffee, palm oil, copra, other tropical products; poultry, beef, pork, eggs

total value:$56.5 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
commodities:oil and gas, electrical appliances, plywood, textiles, rubber
partners:Japan 23.4%, US 13.8%, Singapore 10.7%, South Korea 7%, China 4.5%, Malaysia 3.2% (2000 est.)

total value : $38.1 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
commodities: manufactures 75.3%, raw materials 9.0%, foodstuffs 7.8%, fuels 7.7%
partners: Japan 16.3%, Singapore 11.4%, US 10.2%, South Korea 6.3%, China 6.1%, Australia 5.1% (2000 est.)

Debt - external: $135 billion (2001 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient:$43 billion from IMF program and other official external financing (1997-2000)

Currency: Indonesian rupiah (IDR)

Exchange rates:Indonesian rupiahs per US dollar - 10,377.3 (January 2002), 10,260.9 (2001), 8,421.8 (2000), 7,855.2 (1999), 10,013.6 (1998), 2,909.4 (1997)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March


Telephones: 5,588,310 (1998)

Telephone system: domestic service fair, international service good
domestic: interisland microwave system and HF radio police net; domestic satellite communications system
international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations:AM 678, FM 43, shortwave 82 (1998)

Radios: 31.5 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 41 (1999)

Televisions: 13.75 million (1997)


total: 6,458 km
narrow gauge: ,961 km 1.067-m gauge (101 km electrified; 101 km double-track); 497 km 0.750-m gauge (2001)

total : 342,700 km
paved: 158,670 km
unpaved: 184,030 km (1997)

Waterways: 21,579 km total; Sumatra 5,471 km, Java and Madura 820 km, Kalimantan 10,460 km, Celebes 241 km, Irian Jaya 4,587 km

Pipelines: crude oil 2,505 km; petroleum products 456 km; natural gas 1,703 km (1989)

Ports and harbors: Cilacap, Cirebon, Jakarta, Kupang, Palembang, Semarang, Surabaya, Ujungpandang

Merchant marine:
total: 668 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,969,281 GRT/4,043,526 DWT
note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Greece 1, Hong Kong 2, India 1, Japan 2, Malaysia 1, Monaco 3, Panama 1, Philippines 1, Singapore 11, South Korea 1, Switzerland 1, UK 2, US 1 (2002 est.)
ships by type: bulk 41, cargo 392, chemical tanker 12, container 32, liquefied gas 3, livestock carrier 1, passenger 8, passenger/cargo 14, petroleum tanker 126, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 15, short-sea passenger 8, specialized tanker 9, vehicle carrier 6

Airports: 490 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 156
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 13
1,524 to 2,437 m: 46
914 to 1,523 m: 48
under 914 m : 45 (2001)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 339
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m:27
under 914 m :309 (2001)

Heliports: 6 (2001)


Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, National Police

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 65,013,184 (2002 est.) .)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 37,942,329 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 2,263,706 (2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $1 billion (FY98/99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.3% (FY98/99)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: sovereignty over Timor Timur (East Timor Province) disputed with Portugal and not recognized by the UN; two islands in dispute with Malaysia

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis largely for domestic use; possible growing role as transshipment point for Golden Triangle heroin