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Countries > Turkmenistan Turkmenistan Flag

Languages   3 languages are spoken in Turkmenistan. We have 375 products available for those languages.

Capital: Ashgabat
Population: 4,250,000
Turkmenistan Map


Location: Central Asia, bordering the Caspian Sea, between Iran and Kazakstan

Geographic coordinates: 40 00 N, 60 00 E

Map references: Commonwealth of Independent States

total : 488,100 sq km
land: 488,100 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly larger than California

Land boundaries:
total: 3,736 km
border countries: Afghanistan 744 km, Iran 992 km, Kazakstan 379 km, Uzbekistan 1,621 km

Coastline: 0 km
note: Turkmenistan borders the Caspian Sea (1,768 km)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: subtropical desert

Terrain: flat-to-rolling sandy desert with dunes rising to mountains in the south; low mountains along border with Iran; borders Caspian Sea in west

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Sarygamysh Koli -110 m
highest point: Ayrybaba 3,139 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, coal, sulfur, salt

Land use:
arable land: 3%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 63%
forests and woodland: 8%
other: 26% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land: 18,000 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: contamination of soil and groundwater with agricultural chemicals, pesticides; salinization, water-logging of soil due to poor irrigation methods; Caspian Sea pollution; diversion of a large share of the flow of the Amu Darya into irrigation contributes to that river's inability to replenish the Aral Sea; desertification

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: landlocked


Population: 4,688,963 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 37.3% (male 895,536; female 853,301)
15-64 years : 58.6% (male 1,350,142; female 1,399,879)
65 years and over: 4.1% (male 72,784; female 117,321) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.84% (2002 est.)

Birth rate: 28.27 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate: 8.92 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.98 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth : 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.62 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 73.21 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 61.1 years
male: 57.57 years
female: 64.8 years (2002 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.54 children born/woman (2002 est.)

noun : Turkmen(s)
adjective: Turkmen

Ethnic groups: Turkmen 77%, Uzbek 9.2%, Russian 6.7%, Kazak 2%, other 5.1% (1995)

Religions: Muslim 89%, Eastern Orthodox 9%, unknown 2%

Languages: Turkmen 72%, Russian 12%, Uzbek 9%, other 7%

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98%
male: 99%
female: 97% (1989 est.)


Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Turkmenistan
local long form: none
local short form: Turkmenistan
former: Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic

Data code: TX

Government type: republic

National capital: Ashgabat

Administrative divisions: 5 welayatlar (singular - welayat): Ahal Welayaty (Ashgabat), Balkan Welayaty (Nebitdag), Dashhowuz Welayaty (formerly Tashauz), Lebap Welayaty (Charjew), Mary Welayaty
note : administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses)

Independence: 27 October 1991 (from the Soviet Union)

National holiday: Independence Day, 27 October (1991)

Constitution: adopted 18 May 1992

Legal system: based on civil law system

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President and Chairman of the Cabinet of Ministers Saparmurat NIYAZOV (since 27 October 1990, when the first direct presidential election occurred); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government:President and Chairman of the Cabinet of Ministers Saparmurat NIYAZOV (since 27 October 1990, when the first direct presidential election occurred); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections : president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 21 June 1992 (next to be held NA); note - President NIYAZOV was unanimously approved as president for life by the Assembly on 28 December 1999); deputy chairmen of the cabinet of ministers are appointed by the president
election results:Saparmurat NIYAZOV elected president without opposition; percent of vote - Saparmurat NIYAZOV 99.5%
note: NIYAZOV's term in office was extended indefinitely on 28 December 1999 by the Assembly (Majlis) during a session of the People's Council (Halk Maslahaty)

Legislative branch:under the 1992 constitution, there are two parliamentary bodies, a unicameral People's Council or Halk Maslahaty (more than 100 seats, some of which are elected by popular vote and some of which are appointed; meets infrequently) and a unicameral Assembly or Majlis (50 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections : People's Council - NA; Assembly - last held 12 December 1999 (next to be held NA 2004)
election results: Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - NA; note - all 50 elected officials preapproved by President NIYAZOV; most are from the DPT

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: Democratic Party of Turkmenistan or DPT [Saparmurat NIYAZOV]
note: fformal opposition parties are outlawed; unofficial, small opposition movements exist underground or in foreign countries

International organization participation: CCC, CIS, EBRD, ECE, ECO, ESCAP, FAO, IBRD, ICAO, IDB, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NACC, NAM, OIC, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Mered Bairamovich ORAZOV
chancery: 2207 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 588-1500
FAX : [1] (202) 588-0697

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Laura E. KENNEDY
embassy : 9 Pushkin Street, Ashgabat
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [9] (9312) 35-00-45, 35-00-46, 35-00-42, Tie Line [8] 962-0000
FAX: [9] (9312) 51-13-05

Flag description: green field, including a vertical stripe on the hoist side, with a claret vertical stripe in between containing five white, black, and orange carpet guls (an asymmetrical design used in producing rugs) associated with five different tribes; a white crescent and five white stars in the upper left corner to the right of the carpet guls


Economy - overview:Turkmenistan is largely desert country with intensive agriculture in irrigated oases and huge gas (fifth largest reserves in the world) and oil resources. One-half of its irrigated land is planted in cotton, making it the world's tenth largest producer. Until the end of 1993, Turkmenistan had experienced less economic disruption than other former Soviet states because its economy received a boost from higher prices for oil and gas and a sharp increase in hard currency earnings. In 1994, Russia's refusal to export Turkmen gas to hard currency markets and mounting debts of its major customers in the former USSR for gas deliveries contributed to a sharp fall in industrial production and caused the budget to shift from a surplus to a slight deficit. With an authoritarian ex-Communist regime in power and a tribally based social structure, Turkmenistan has taken a cautious approach to economic reform, hoping to use gas and cotton sales to sustain its inefficient economy. Privatization goals remain limited. In 1998-2001, Turkmenistan has suffered from the continued lack of adequate export routes for natural gas and from obligations on extensive short-term external debt. At the same time, however, total exports have risen sharply because of higher international oil and gas prices. Prospects in the near future are discouraging because of widespread internal poverty, the burden of foreign debt, and the unwillingness of the government to adopt market-oriented reforms. However, Turkmenistan's cooperation with the international community in transporting humanitarian aid to Afghanistan may foreshadow a change in the atmosphere for foreign investment, aid, and technological support. Turkmenistan's economic statistics are state secrets, and GDP and other figures are subject to wide margins of error.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $21.5 billion (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 10% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $4,700 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture :27%
services: 28% (2000 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index:10% (2001 est.)

Labor force:
total : 2.34 million (1996)
by occupation: agriculture 48%, industry 15%, services 37% (1998 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

revenues: $588.6 million
expenditures: $658.2 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1999 est.)

Industries: natural gas, oil, petroleum products, textiles, food processing

Industrial production growth rate: 17.9% (1996 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 3.95 million kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 9.256 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 7.708 billion kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products: cotton, grain; livestock

total value: $2.7 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
commodities: gas 33%, oil 30%, cotton fiber 18%, textiles 8% (1999)
partners: Ukraine 27%, Iran 14%, Turkey 11%, Italy 9%, Switzerland 5% (1999)

total value : $2.3 billion (c.i.f., 2001 est.)
commodities: machinery and parts, grain and food, plastics and rubber, consumer durables, textiles
partners: Turkey 17%, Ukraine 12%, Russia 11%, UAE 8%, France 6% (1999)

Debt - external: $2.3 billion to $5 billion (2001 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: $16 million from the US (2001)

Currency: 1 Tukmen manat (TMM) = 100 tenesi; Turkmenistan introduced its national currency on 1 November 1993

Exchange rates: Turkmen manats per US dollar - 5,200 (January 2002-January 2000), 5,350 (January 1999), 4,070 (January 1997)

Fiscal year: calendar year


Telephones: 363,000 (1997)

Telephone system: poorly developed
domestic: NA
international : linked by cable and microwave radio relay to other CIS republics and to other countries by leased connections to the Moscow international gateway switch; a new telephone link from Ashgabat to Iran has been established; a new exchange in Ashgabat switches international traffic through Turkey via Intelsat; satellite earth stations - 1 Orbita and 1 Intelsat

Radio broadcast stations: AM 16, FM 8, shortwave 2 (1998)

Radios: 1.225 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 3 (much programming relayed from Russia and Turkey) (1997)

Televisions: 820,000 (1997)


total: 2,440 km
broad gauge: 2,440 km 1.520-m gauge (2001)

total: 22,000 km
paved: 18,000 km (includes some all-weather gravel-surfaced roads)
unpaved:4,000 km (these roads are made of unstabilized earth and are difficult to negotiate in wet weather) (1996)

Waterways: the Amu Darya is an important inland waterway

Pipelines: crude oil 250 km; natural gas 4,400 km

Ports and harbors: Turkmenbashi (formerly Krasnowodsk)

Merchant marine:
total: 1 ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,600 GRT/5,000 DWT

Airports: 76 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 13
2,438 to 3,047 m: 9
1,524 to 2,437 m : 4 (2001)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total : 63
2,438 to 3,047 m:7
1,524 to 2,437 m :5
914 to 1,523 m: 10
under 914 m: 41 (2001)


Military branches: Army, Air and Air Defense, Republic Security Forces (internal and border troops), National Guard

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 1,206,920 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 979,282 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males : 48,292 (2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: 4$90 million (FY99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 3.4% (FY99)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan wrestle with sharing limited water resources and regional environmental degradation caused by the shrinking of the Aral Sea; multilaterally-accepted Caspian Sea seabed and maritime boundaries have not yet been established in the Caspian - Iran insists on division of Caspian Sea into five equal sectors while Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Russia, and Turkmenistan have generally agreed upon equidistant seabed boundaries; Azerbaijan and Turkmenistan await ICJ decision to resolve sovereignty dispute over oil fields in the Caspian Sea

Illicit drugs: limited illicit cultivator of opium poppy, mostly for domestic consumption; limited government eradication program; increasingly used as transshipment point for illicit drugs from Southwest Asia to Russia and Western Europe; also a transshipment point for acetic anhydride destined for Afghanistan

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