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Countries > Tajikistan Tajikistan Flag

Languages   5 languages are spoken in Tajikistan. We have 257 products available for those languages.

Capital: Dushanbe
Population: 6,100,000
Tajikistan Map


Current issues: Tajikistan has experienced three changes in government and a five-year civil war since it gained independence in 1991 from the USSR. A peace agreement among rival factions was signed in 1997, and implemented in 2000. The central government's less than total control over some areas of the country has forced it to compromise and forge alliances among factions. Open skirmishes in the streets are less of a problem than they were during the war five years ago. Attention by the international community in the wake of the war in Afghanistan may bring increased economic development assistance, which would create jobs and increase stability in the long term. Tajikistan is in the beginning stages of seeking World Trade Organization membership and has been approved to join NATO's Partnership for Peace.


Location: Central Asia, west of China

Geographic coordinates: 39 00 N, 71 00 E

Map references: Commonwealth of Independent States

total : 143,100 sq km
land: 142,700 sq km
water: 400 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Wisconsin

Land boundaries:
total: 3,651 km
border countries: Afghanistan 1,206 km, China 414 km, Kyrgyzstan 870 km, Uzbekistan 1,161 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: midlatitude continental, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid to polar in Pamir Mountains

Terrain: Pamirs and Alay Mountains dominate landscape; western Fergana Valley in north, Kofarnihon and Vakhsh Valleys in southwest

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Syrdariya 300 m
highest point: Qullai Kommunizm 7,495 m

Natural resources: significant hydropower potential, some petroleum, uranium, mercury, brown coal, lead, zinc, antimony, tungsten

Land use:
arable land : 6%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 25%
forests and woodland: 4%
other: 65% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land: 7,200 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: inadequate sanitation facilities; increasing levels of soil salinity; industrial pollution; excessive pesticides; part of the basin of the shrinking Aral Sea suffers from severe overutilization of available water for irrigation and associated pollution

Environment - international agreements:
party to: none of the selected agreements
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: landlocked


Population: 6,719,567 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 40.4% (male 1,370,314; female 1,346,465)
15-64 years :54.9% (male 1,835,573; female 1,854,677)
65 years and over:4.7% (male 136,033; female 176,505) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.12% (2002 est.)

Birth rate: 32.99 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate: 8.51 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate: -3.27 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth : 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over:0.77 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 114.77 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 64.28 years
male : 61.24 years
female: 67.46 years (2002 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.23 children born/woman (2002 est.)

noun: Tajikistani(s)
adjective: Tajikistani

Ethnic groups: Tajik 64.9%, Uzbek 25%, Russian 3.5% (declining because of emigration), other 6.6%

Religions: Sunni Muslim 85%, Shi'a Muslim 5%

Languages: Tajik (official), Russian widely used in government and business

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98%
male: 99%
female: 97% (1989 est.)


Country name:
conventional long form : Republic of Tajikistan
conventional short form: Tajikistan
local long form: Jumhurii Tojikistan
local short form: none
former : Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic

Data code: TI

Government type: republic

National capital: Dushanbe

Administrative divisions:2 provinces (viloyatho, singular - viloyat) and 1 autonomous province* (viloyati mukhtor); Viloyati Mukhtori Kuhistoni Badakhshon* (Khorugh), Viloyati Khatlon (Qurghonteppa), Viloyati Sughd (Khujand)
note: the administrative center name follows in parentheses

Independence: 9 September 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: National Day, 9 September (1991)

Constitution: new constitution adopted 6 November 1994

Legal system: based on civil law system; no judicial review of legislative acts

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state : President Emomali RAHMONOV (since 6 November 1994; head of state and Supreme Assembly chairman since 19 November 1992)
head of government:Prime Minister Oqil OQILOV (since 20 January 1999)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president who proposes them to the Supreme Assembly for approval
elections :president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term; election last held 6 November 1999 (next to be held NA 2006); prime minister appointed by the president
election results:Emomali RAHMONOV elected president; percent of vote - Emomali RAHMONOV 97%, Davlat USMON 2%

Legislative branch: bicameral Supreme Assembly or Majlisi Oli consists of the Assembly of Representatives (lower chamber) or Majlisi Namoyandagon (63 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) and the National Assembly (upper chamber) or Majlisi Milliy (33 seats; members are indirectly elected, 25 selected by local deputies, 8 appointed by the president; all serve five-year terms)
elections : last held 27 February and 12 March 2000 for the Assembly of Representatives (next to be held NA 2005) and 23 March 2000 for the National Assembly (next to be held NA 2005)
election results: Assembly of Representatives - percent of vote by party - PDPT 65%, Communist Party 20%, Islamic Rebirth Party 7.5%, other 7.5%; seats by party - NA; National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - NA

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges are appointed by the president

Political parties and leaders: Congress of People's Unity of Tajikistan [Saiffidin TURAYEV]; Democratic Party or TDP [Mahmadruzi ISKANDAROV, chairman]; Islamic Rebirth Party [Muhammadsharif HIMMAT-ZODA, chairman]; Party of Justice and Development [Rahmatullo ZOIROV]; People's Democratic Party of Tajikistan or PDPT [Emomali RAHMONOV]; Socialist Party [leader NA]; Tajik Communist Party or CPT [Shodi SHABDOLOV]; Adolatho "Justice" Party [Abdurahmon KARIMOV, chairman]

Political pressure groups and leaders: there are three unregistered political parties with 1,000 or more members: Progressive Party [Suton QUVVATOV]; Social Democratic Party [Rahmatullo ZOIROV]; Unity Party [Hikmatuko SAIDOV]

International organization participation: CIS, EBRD, ECE, ECO, ESCAP, FAO, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, Intelsat, IOC, IOM, ITU, NACC, OIC, OSCE, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US: Tajikistan does not have an embassy in the US, but has a mission at the UN: address - 136 East 67th Street, New York, NY 10021, telephone - [1] (212) 472-7645, FAX - [1] (212) 628-0252; permanent representative to the UN is Rashid ALIMOV

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Franklin P. "Pancho" HUDDLE, Jr.
embassy : interim chancery, Oktyabrskaya Hotel, 105A Prospect Rudaki, Dushanbe 734001
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone : [7] (3772) 21-03-56
FAX: Telex (787) 20116

Flag description: three horizontal stripes of red (top), a wider stripe of white, and green; a gold crown surmounted by seven five-pointed gold stars is located in the center of the white stripe


Economy - overview:Tajikistan has the lowest per capita GDP among the 15 former Soviet republics. Cotton is the most important crop. Mineral resources, varied but limited in amount, include silver, gold, uranium, and tungsten. Industry consists only of a large aluminum plant, hydropower facilities, and small obsolete factories mostly in light industry and food processing. The civil war (1992-97) severely damaged the already weak economic infrastructure and caused a sharp decline in industrial and agricultural production. Even though 80% of its people continue to live in abject poverty, Tajikistan has experienced strong economic growth since 1997. Continued privatization of medium and large state-owned enterprises will further increase productivity. Tajikistan's economic situation, however, remains fragile due to uneven implementation of structural reforms, weak governance, and the external debt burden. Servicing of the debt, owed principally to Russia and Uzbekistan, could require as much as 50% of government revenues in 2002, thus limiting the nation's ability to meet pressing development needs

GDP: purchasing power parity - $7.5 billion (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 8.3% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,140 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
industry: 25%
services: 56% (2000)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 33% (2001 est.)

Labor force:
total: 3.187 million (2000)
by occupation: agriculture 67.2%, industry 7.5%, services 25.3% (2000 est.)

Unemployment rate: 20% (2001 est.)

revenues:$146 million
expenditures : $196 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)

Industries: aluminum, zinc, lead, chemicals and fertilizers, cement, vegetable oil, metal-cutting machine tools, refrigerators and freezers

Industrial production growth rate: 10.3% (2000 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 4.44 million kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 14.245 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 12.539 billion kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products: cotton, grain, fruits, grapes, vegetables; cattle, sheep, goats

total value:$640 million (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
commodities : cotton, aluminum, fruits, vegetable oil, textiles
partners: Europe 43%, Russia 30%, Uzbekistan 13% (2000)

total value: $700 million (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
commodities: fuel, chemicals, machinery and transport equipment, textiles, foodstuffs
partners : Uzbekistan 27%, Russia 16%, Europe 12% (2000)

Debt - external: $1.23 billion (2000 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient : $60.7 million from US (2001)

Currency: somoni

Exchange rates: Tajikistani somoni per US dollar - 2.55 (January 2002), 2.2 (January 2001), 1550 (January 2000), 998 (January 1999), 350 (January 1997), 284 (January 1996) note: the new unit of exchange was introduced on 30 October 2000, with one somoni equal to 1,000 of the old Tajikistani rubles

Fiscal year: calendar year


Telephones: 363,000 (1997)

Telephone system: poorly developed and not well maintained; many towns are not reached by the national network
domestic: cable and microwave radio relay
international:linked by cable and microwave radio relay to other CIS republics and by leased connections to the Moscow international gateway switch; Dushanbe linked by Intelsat to international gateway switch in Ankara (Turkey); satellite earth stations - 1 Orbita and 2 Intelsat

Radio broadcast stations:AM 8, FM 7, shortwave 2 (2001)

Radios:1.291 million (1991)

Television broadcast stations: 13 (2001)

Televisions: 820,000 (1997)


total: 482 km in common carrier service; does not include industrial lines (2001)

total: 29,900 km
paved: 21,400 km (includes some all-weather gravel-surfaced roads)
unpaved: 8,500 km (these roads are made of unstabilized earth and are difficult to negotiate in wet weather) (1990)

Pipelines: natural gas 400 km (1992)

Ports and harbors: none

Airports: 53 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:
total :2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
under 914 m : 1 (2001)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m:12
under 914 m : 36 (2001)


Military branches: Army, Air Force, Presidential National Guard, Security Forces (internal and border troops)

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 1,646,278 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males : 1,349,505 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 72,056 (2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: 1$35.4 million (FY01)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 3.9% (FY01)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international:the undemarcated northern and western border with Uzbekistan is mined in many sections; continues to maintain a territorial dispute with Kyrgyzstan in Isfara Valley area; ongoing talks with China have failed to resolve the longstanding dispute over the indefinite boundary; Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan wrestle with sharing limited water resources and the regional environmental degradation caused by the shrinking of the Aral Sea

Illicit drugs:major transshipment zone for heroin and opiates from Afghanistan going to Russia and Western Europe; limited illicit cultivation of narcotics crops, mostly for domestic consumption

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