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Countries > Macedonia Macedonia Flag

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Capital: Skopje
Population: 2,125,000
Macedonia Map


Location: Southeastern Europe, north of Greece

Geographic coordinates: 41 50 N, 22 00 E

Map references: Europe

total : 25,333 sq km
land: 24,856 sq km
water: 477 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly larger than Vermont

Land boundaries:
total: 748 km
border countries: Albania 151 km, Bulgaria 148 km, Greece 228 km, Serbia and Montenegro 221 km (all with Serbia)

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: hot, dry summers and autumns and relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall

Terrain: mountainous territory covered with deep basins and valleys; there are three large lakes, each divided by a frontier line; country bisected by the Vardar River

Elevation extremes:
lowest point : Vardar River 50 m
highest point: Korab 2,753 m

Natural resources: chromium, lead, zinc, manganese, tungsten, nickel, low-grade iron ore, asbestos, sulfur, timber

Land use:
arable land: 24%
permanent crops : 2%
permanent pastures: 25%
forests and woodland: 39%
other: 10% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 830 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: high seismic risks

Environment - current issues: air pollution from metallurgical plants

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified : none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: landlocked; major transportation corridor from Western and Central Europe to Aegean Sea and Southern Europe to Western Europe


Population: 2,054,800
note: ta Framework Agreement ratified by Macedonia on 16 November 2001 calls for a new census in 2002 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 22.4% (male 239,638; female 221,446)
15-64 years:67.2% (male 694,368; female 686,450)
65 years and over : 10.4% (male 94,214; female 118,684) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.41% (2002 est.)

Birth rate: 13.35 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate: 7.74 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.49 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.08 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over : 0.79 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 12.54 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population :74.26 years
male: 72.01 years
female:76.68 years (2002 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.77 children born/woman (2002 est.)

noun: Macedonian(s)
adjective: Macedonian

Ethnic groups: Macedonian 66.6%, Albanian 22.7%, Turkish 4%, Roma 2.2%, Serb 2.1%, other 2.4% (1994)

Religions: Eastern Orthodox 67%, Muslim 30%, other 3%

Languages: Macedonian 70%, Albanian 21%, Turkish 3%, Serbo-Croatian 3%, other 3%

Literacy: NA


Country name:
conventional long form : The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
conventional short form: none
local long form: Republika Makedonija
local short form: Makedonija
abbreviation: FYROM

Data code: MK

Government type: emerging democracy

National capital: Skopje

Administrative divisions:123 municipalities (opstini, singular - opstina); Aracinovo, Bac, Belcista, Berovo, Bistrica, Bitola, Blatec, Bogdanci, Bogomila, Bogovinje, Bosilovo, Brvenica, Cair (Skopje), Capari, Caska, Cegrane, Centar (Skopje), Centar Zupa, Cesinovo, Cucer-Sandevo, Debar, Delcevo, Delogozdi, Demir Hisar, Demir Kapija, Dobrusevo, Dolna Banjica, Dolneni, Dorce Petrov (Skopje), Drugovo, Dzepciste, Gazi Baba (Skopje), Gevgelija, Gostivar, Gradsko, Ilinden, Izvor, Jegunovce, Kamenjane, Karbinci, Karpos (Skopje), Kavadarci, Kicevo, Kisela Voda (Skopje), Klecevce, Kocani, Konce, Kondovo, Konopiste, Kosel, Kratovo, Kriva Palanka, Krivogastani, Krusevo, Kuklis, Kukurecani, Kumanovo, Labunista, Lipkovo, Lozovo, Lukovo, Makedonska Kamenica, Makedonski Brod, Mavrovi Anovi, Meseista, Miravci, Mogila, Murtino, Negotino, Negotino-Polosko, Novaci, Novo Selo, Oblesevo, Ohrid, Orasac, Orizari, Oslomej, Pehcevo, Petrovec, Plasnica, Podares, Prilep, Probistip, Radovis, Rankovce, Resen, Rosoman, Rostusa, Samokov, Saraj, Sipkovica, Sopiste, Sopotnica, Srbinovo, Star Dojran, Staravina, Staro Nagoricane, Stip, Struga, Strumica, Studenicani, Suto Orizari (Skopje), Sveti Nikole, Tearce, Tetovo, Topolcani, Valandovo, Vasilevo, Velesta, Veles, Vevcani, Vinica, Vitoliste, Vranestica, Vrapciste, Vratnica, Vrutok, Zajas, Zelenikovo, Zeleno, Zitose, Zletovo, Zrnovci
note: the seven municipalities followed by Skopje in parentheses collectively constitute "greater Skopje"

Independence: 17 September 1991 (from Yugoslavia)

National holiday: Uprising Day, 2 August (1903)

Constitution: adopted 17 November 1991, effective 20 November 1991

Legal system: based on civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state:President Boris TRAJKOVSKI (since 15 December 1999)
head of government: Prime Minister Ljubco GEORGIEVSKI (since 30 November 1998)
cabinet: Council of Ministers elected by the majority vote of all the deputies in the Assembly; note - after the withdrawal of the Liberal Party (LP) from the ruling coalition in early 1996, the Council of Ministers was reorganized without LP participation
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 14 November 1999 (next to be held NA October 2004); prime minister elected by the Assembly; election last held NA November 1998 (next to be held NA 2002)
election results: Boris TRAJKOVSKI elected president on second-round ballot; percent of vote - Boris TRAJKOVSKI 52.4%, Tito PETKOVSKI 46.2%

Legislative branch:unicameral Assembly or Sobranje (120 seats - 85 members are elected by popular vote, 35 members come from lists of candidates submitted by parties based on the percentage that a party gains from the overall vote; all serve four-year terms)
elections:last held 18 October and 1 November 1998 (next tentatively scheduled for June 2002)
election results : percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - VMRO-DPMNE 43, SDSM 27, PDP 14, DA 13, DPA 11, VMRO-VMRO 6, LDP 4, SP 1, Roma Party 1

Judicial branch: Constitutional Court, judges are elected by the Judicial Council; Judicial Court of the Republic, judges are elected by the Judicial Council

Political parties and leaders: Democratic Alternative or DA [Vasil TUPURKOVSKI, president]; Democratic Party of Albanians or DPA [Arben XHAFERI, president]; Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization-Democratic Party for Macedonian National Unity or VMRO-DPMNE [Ljubcho GEORGIEVSKI, president]; Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization-True Macedonian Reform Option or VMRO-VMRO [Boris STOJMANOV]; Liberal Democratic Party or LDP [Risto GUSTERVO]; Liberal Party [leader NA]; National Democratic Party or MPDK [Kastriot HAXHISEXHA]; Party for Democratic Prosperity or PDP [Imeri IMERI, president]; Social-Democratic Alliance of Macedonia or SDSM (former Communist Party) [Branko CRVENKOVSKI, president]; Socialist Party of Macedonia or SP [Ljubisav IVANOV, president]; Union of Romanies of Macedonia or SRM [leader NA]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Movement for All Macedonian Action or MAAK; Democratic Party of Serbs; Democratic Party of Turks; Party for Democratic Action (Slavic Muslim)

International organization participation: CCC, CE, CEI, EBRD, ECE, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, NACC, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Nikola DIMITROV
chancery: 3050 K Street, NW, Suite 210, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 337 3063
FAX: [1] (202) 337 3093

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Christopher Robert Larry BUTLER
embassy: Ilindenska BB, 9100 Skopje
mailing address: American Embassy Skopje, Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-7120 (pouch)
telephone : [389] (91) 116-180
FAX: [389] (91) 117-103

Flag description: a rising yellow sun with 8 rays extending to the edges of the red field


Economy - overview: At independence in November 1991, Macedonia was the least developed of the Yugoslav republics, producing a mere 5% of the total federal output of goods and services. The collapse of Yugoslavia ended transfer payments from the center and eliminated advantages from inclusion in a de facto free trade area. An absence of infrastructure, UN sanctions on Yugoslavia, one of its largest markets, and a Greek economic embargo over a dispute about the country's constitutional name and flag hindered economic growth until 1996. GDP subsequently rose each year through 2000. However, the leadership's commitment to economic reform, free trade, and regional integration was undermined by the ethnic Albanian insurgency of 2001. The economy shrank about 4% because of decreased trade, intermittent border closures, increased deficit spending on security needs, and investor uncertainty. The international community hopes to restart growth with a donors' conference in 2002

GDP: purchasing power parity - $4,400 (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: -4% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $4,400 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 10%
industry: 32%
services :58% (2001 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index:5.3% (2001 est.)

Labor force:
total: 1.1 million (2000 est.)
by occupation: agriculture NA%, industry NA%, services NA%

Unemployment rate: 39% (2001 est.)

revenues : $850 million
expenditures: $950 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (2001 est.)

Industries: coal, metallic chromium, lead, zinc, ferronickel, textiles, wood products, tobacco

Industrial production growth rate:-8% (2001 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 1.38 million kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 6.395 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 5.992 billion kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: rice, tobacco, wheat, corn, millet, cotton, sesame, mulberry leaves, citrus, vegetables; beef, pork, poultry, mutton

total value: $1.2 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
commodities: food, beverage, tobacco 17.0%, machinery and transport equipment 13.3%, other manufactured goods 58%
partners : Yugoslavia 25%, Germany 19%, US 13%, Italy 7%, Greece 6% (2000)

total value: $1.5 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
commodities: machinery and equipment 19%, chemicals 14%, fuels 12%
partners: Germany 12%, Ukraine 10%, Greece 10%, Russia 9%, Yugoslavia 9% (2000)

Debt - external: $1.3 billion (2001 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: $150 million (2001 est.)

Currency: 1 Macedonian denar (MKD) = 100 deni

Exchange rates: $150 million (2001 est.)

Fiscal year: calendar year


Telephones: 408,000 (1997)

Telephone system:
domestic: NA
international: NA

Radio broadcast stations: AM 29, FM 20, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios:410,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 5 (relays 2)

Televisions: 510,000 (1997)


total: 699 km
standard gauge: 699 km 1.435-m gauge (233 km electrified)
note: a 56-km extension of the Kumanovo-Beljakovce line to the Bulgarian border at Gyueshevo is under construction (2001)

total:8,684 km
paved:5,540 km (including 133 km of expressways)
unpaved: 3,144 km (1997)

Waterways: none, lake transport only on the Greek and Albanian borders

Pipelines: 10 km

Ports and harbors: none

Airports: 17 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 10
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
under 914 m: 8 (2001)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 7
914 to 1,523 m:3
under 914 m: 4 (2001)


Military branches: Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces, Police Force

Military manpower - military age: 19 years of age (2002 est.)

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 551,523 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 444,575 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 17,905 (2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $200 million (FY01/02 est.)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 6% (FY01/02 est.)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: dispute with Greece over country's name persists; 2001 FYROM-Yugoslavia boundary delimitation agreement, which adjusts former republic boundaries, was signed and ratified and awaits demarcation; ethnic Albanians in Kosovo dispute legitimacy of the agreement, which cedes small tracts of Kosovo lands to FYROM

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and hashish; minor transit point for South American cocaine

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