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Countries > Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyzstan Flag

Languages   4 languages are spoken in Kyrgyzstan. We have 504 products available for those languages.

Capital: Bishkek
Population: 4,600,000
Kyrgyzstan Map


Location: Central Asia, west of China

Geographic coordinates: 41 00 N, 75 00 E

Map references: Commonwealth of Independent States

total: 198,500 sq km
land: 191,300 sq km
water: 7,200 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than South Dakota

Land boundaries:
total: 3,878 km
border countries: China 858 km, Kazakstan 1,051 km, Tajikistan 870 km, Uzbekistan 1,099 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: dry continental to polar in high Tien Shan; subtropical in southwest (Fergana Valley); temperate in northern foothill zone

Terrain: peaks of Tien Shan and associated valleys and basins encompass entire nation

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Kara-Daryya 132 m
highest point : Jengish Chokusu 7,439 m

Natural resources: abundant hydroelectric potential; significant deposits of gold and rare earth metals; locally exploitable coal, oil, and natural gas; other deposits of nepheline, mercury, bismuth, lead, and zinc

Land use:
arable land: 7%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 44%
forests and woodland : 4%
other: 45% (1998 est.)
note : Kyrgyzstan has the world's largest natural growth walnut forest

Irrigated land: 10,740 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: water pollution; many people get their water directly from contaminated streams and wells; as a result, water-borne diseases are prevalent; increasing soil salinity from faulty irrigation practices

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Hazardous Wastes
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: landlocked


Population: 4,822,166 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 34.4% (male 838,224; female 821,230)
15-64 years: 59.4% (male 1,403,328; female 1,459,914)
65 years and over: 6.2% (male 113,861; female 185,609) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.45% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:26.11 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate: 9.1 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate: -2.51 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth : 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over:0.61 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 75.92 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population:63.56 years
male : 59.35 years
female: 67.98 years (2002 est.)

Total fertility rate:3.16 children born/woman (2002 est.)

noun: Kyrgyzstani(s)
adjective: Kyrgyzstani

Ethnic groups:Kyrgyz 52.4%, Russian 18%, Uzbek 12.9%, Ukrainian 2.5%, German 2.4%, other 11.8%

Religions: Muslim 75%, Russian Orthodox 20%, other 5%

Languages: Kirghiz (Kyrgyz) - official language, Russian - official language
note: in December 2001, the Kyrgyzstani legislature made Russian an official language, equal in status to Kyrgyz

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 97%
male : 99%
female: 96% (1989 est.)


Country name:
conventional long form: Kyrgyz Republic
conventional short form: Kyrgyzstan
local long form: Kyrgyz Respublikasy
local short form: none
former: Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic

Data code: KG

Government type: republic

National capital: Bishkek

Administrative divisions: provinces (oblastlar, singular - oblasty) and 1 city* (shaar); Batken Oblasty, Bishkek Shaary*, Chuy Oblasty (Bishkek), Jalal-Abad Oblasty, Naryn Oblasty, Osh Oblasty, Talas Oblasty, Ysyk-Kol Oblasty (Karakol)
note:administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses)

Independence: 31 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: National Day, 2 December; Independence Day, 31 August (1991)

Constitution: adopted 5 May 1993
note : amendment proposed by President AKAYEV and passed in a national referendum on 10 February 1996 significantly expands the powers of the president at the expense of the legislature

Legal system: based on civil law system

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Askar AKAYEV (since 28 October 1990)
head of government:Prime Minister Nikolay TANAYEV (since 22 May 2002); note - Prime Minister Kurmanbek BAKIYEV resigned on 22 May 2002 when five demonstrators were killed in clashes with the police
cabinet : Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister
elections: president reelected by popular vote for a five-year term; elections last held 29 October 2000 (next to be held November or December 2005); prime minister appointed by the president
election results : Askar AKAYEV reelected president; percent of vote - Askar AKAYEV 74%, Omurbek TEKEBAYEV 14%, other candidates 12%; note - election marred by serious irregularities

Legislative branch: bicameral Supreme Council or Zhogorku Kenesh consists of the Assembly of People's Representatives (70 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) and the Legislative Assembly (35 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections:Assembly of People's Representatives - last held 20 February and 12 March 2000 (next to be held NA February 2005); Legislative Assembly - last held 20 February and 12 March 2000 (next to be held NA February 2005)
election results : Assembly of People's Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA%; percent of vote by party - NA; and Legislative Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - NA; note - total seats by party in the Supreme Council were as follows: Union of Democratic Forces 12, Communists 6, My Country Party of Action 4, independents 73, other 10
note: the legislature became bicameral for the 5 February 1995 elections; the 2000 election results include both the Assembly of People's Representatives and the Legislative Assembly

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges are appointed for a 10-year term by the Zhogorku Kenesh on recommendation of the president; Constitutional Court; Higher Court of Arbitration

Political parties and leaders: Agrarian Labor Party of Kyrgyzstan [Uson S. SYDYKOV]; Agrarian Party of Kyrgyzstan [Arkin ALIYEV]; Ata-Meken or Fatherland [Omurbek TEKEBAYEV]; Banner National Revival Party or ASABA [Chaprashty BAZARBAY]; Democratic Movement of Kyrgyzstan or DDK [Jypar JEKSHEYEV]; Democratic Women's Party of Kyrgyzstan [T. A. SHAILIYEVA]; Dignity Party [Feliks KULOV]; Erkin Kyrgyzstan Progressive and Democratic Party [Tursunbay Bakir UULU]; Justice Party [Chingiz AYTMATOV]; Movement for the People's Salvation [Jumgalbek AMAMBAYEV]; Mutual Help Movement or Ashar [Jumagazy USUPOV]; My Country of Action [Almazbek ISMANKULOV]; National Unity Democratic Movement or DDNE [Yury RAZGULYAYEV]; Party of Communists of Kyrgyzstan or KCP [Absamat M. MASALIYEV]; Party of the Veterans of the War in Afghanistan [leader NA]; Peasant Party [leader NA]; People's Party [Melis ESHIMKANOV]; Republican Popular Party of Kyrgyzstan [J. SHARSHENALIYEV]; Social Democratic Party or PSD [J. IBRAMOV]; Union of Democratic Forces (composed of Social Democratic Party of Kyrgyzstan or PSD [J. IBRAMOV], Economic Revival Party, and Birimdik Party

Political pressure groups and leaders: Council of Free Trade Unions; Kyrgyz Committee on Human Rights [Ramazan DYRYLDAYEV]; National Unity Democratic Movement; Union of Entrepreneurs

International organization participation: AsDB, CIS, EBRD, ECE, ECO, ESCAP, FAO, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, Intelsat, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, NACC, OIC, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Bakytbek ABDRISAYEV
chancery: 1732 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 338-5141
FAX : [1] (202) 338-5139

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador John M. O'KEEFE
embassy: Erkindik Prospekt #66, Bishkek 720002
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [7] (3312) 22-26-93, 22-32-89
FAX: [7] (3312) 22-35-51

Flag description: red field with a yellow sun in the center having 40 rays representing the 40 Kirghiz tribes; on the obverse side the rays run counterclockwise, on the reverse, clockwise; in the center of the sun is a red ring crossed by two sets of three lines, a stylized representation of the roof of the traditional Kirghiz yurt


Economy - overview: Kyrgyzstan is a small, poor, mountainous country with a predominantly agricultural economy. Cotton, wool, and meat are the main agricultural products and exports. Industrial exports include gold, mercury, uranium, and electricity. Kyrgyzstan has been one of the most progressive countries of the former Soviet Union in carrying out market reforms. With fits and starts, inflation has been lowered to an estimated 7% in 2001. Much of the government's stock in enterprises has been sold. Drops in production had been severe since the breakup of the Soviet Union in December 1991, but by mid-1995 production began to recover and exports began to increase. Growth was held down to 2.1% in 1998 largely because of the spillover from Russia's economic difficulties, but moved ahead to 3.6% in 1999, 5% in 2000, and 5% again in 2001. Despite these gains, poverty indicators are no better in 2001 than in 1996. On the positive side, the government and the international financial institutions have embarked on a comprehensive medium-term poverty reduction and economic growth strategy. In November 2001, with financing assurance from the Paris Club, the IMF Board approved a three-year, $93 million Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $13.5 billion (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 5% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $2,800 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 38%
industry :27%
services: 35% (2000 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 7% (2001 est.)

Labor force:
total: 2.7 million (2000)
by occupation: agriculture 55%, industry 15%, services 30% (2000 est.)

Unemployment rate:7.2% (1999 est.)

revenues: $207.4 million
expenditures: $238.7 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1999 est.)

Industries: small machinery, textiles, food processing, cement, shoes, sawn logs, refrigerators, furniture, electric motors, gold, rare earth metals

Industrial production growth rate: 6% (2000 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 3.63 million kW (1994)

Electricity - production:14.677 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 9.818 billion kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products: wool, tobacco, cotton, potatoes, vegetables, grapes, fruits and berries; sheep, goats, cattle

total value : $475 million (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
commodities: cotton, wool, meat, tobacco; gold, mercury, uranium, hydropower; machinery; shoes
partners: Germany 28.7%, Uzbekistan 17.7%, Russia 12.9%, China 8.7%, Kazakhstan 6.6% (2000)

total value: $420 million (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
commodities: grain, lumber, industrial products, ferrous metals, fuel, machinery, textiles, footwear
partners:Russia 23.9%, Uzbekistan 13.5%, Kazakhstan 10.3%, US 9.7%, Turkey 4.8% (2000)

Debt - external: $1.6 billion (2001 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: $50 million from the US (2001)

Currency: 1 Kyrgyzstani som (KGS) = 100 tyiyn

Exchange rates: soms per US dollar - 47.972 (January 2002), 48.378 (2001), 47.704 (2000), 39.008 (1999), 20.838 (1998), 17.362 (1997)

Fiscal year: calendar year


Telephones: 351,000 (1997)

Telephone system: poorly developed; about 100,000 unsatisfied applications for household telephones
domestic: principally microwave radio relay; one cellular provider, probably limited to Bishkek region
international: connections with other CIS countries by landline or microwave radio relay and with other countries by leased connections with Moscow international gateway switch and by satellite; satellite earth stations - 1 Intersputnik and 1 Intelsat; connected internationally by the Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic line

Radio broadcast stations: AM 12 (plus 10 repeater stations), FM 14, shortwave 2 (1998)

Radios: 520,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: NA (repeater stations throughout the country relay programs from Russia, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, and Turkey) (1997)

Televisions: 210,000 (1997)


total: 370 km in common carrier service; does not include industrial lines
broad gauge: 370 km 1.520-m gauge (1990)

total: 30,300 km (including 140 km of expressways)
paved: 22,600 km (includes some all-weather gravel-surfaced roads)
unpaved : 7,700 km (these roads are made of unstabilized earth and are difficult to negotiate in wet weather) (1990)

Waterways: 600 km (1990)

Pipelines: natural gas 200 km

Ports and harbors: Balykchy (Ysyk-Kol or Rybach'ye)

Airports: 50 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 4
over 3,047 m : 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m:1
914 to 1,523 m:6

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 46
1,524 to 2,437 m : 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 6
under 914 m: 32 (2001)


Military branches: Army, National Guard, Security Forces (internal and border troops), Civil Defense

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 1,234,457 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 1,001,274 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males:50,590 (2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: 1$19.2 million (FY01) Military expenditures - percent of GDP:1.4% (FY01)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international:territorial dispute with Tajikistan on southwestern boundary in Isfara Valley area; dispute over access to Sokh and other Uzbek enclaves in Kyrgyzstan mars progress on boundary delimitation; disputes over provision of water and hydroelectric power to Kazakhstan; periodic target of Islamic insurgents from Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and Afghanistan

Illicit drugs: limited illicit cultivator of cannabis and opium poppy, mostly for CIS consumption; limited government eradication program; increasingly used as transshipment point for illicit drugs to Russia and Western Europe from Southwest Asia