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Countries > Guatemala Guatemala Flag
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Capital: Guatemala City
Population: 12,000,000
Click to Listen Play the National Anthem
Guatemala Map

Geography

Location: Middle America, bordering the Caribbean Sea, between Honduras and Belize and bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between El Salvador and Mexico

Geographic coordinates: 15 30 N, 90 15 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total: 108,890 sq km
land: 108,430 sq km
water: 460 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Tennessee

Land boundaries:
total: 1,687 km
border countries: Belize 266 km, El Salvador 203 km, Honduras 256 km, Mexico 962 km

Coastline: 400 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; hot, humid in lowlands; cooler in highlands

Terrain: mostly mountains with narrow coastal plains and rolling limestone plateau (Peten)

Elevation extremes:
lowest point : Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Volcan Tajumulco 4,211 m

Natural resources: petroleum, nickel, rare woods, fish, chicle

Land use:
arable land : 13%
permanent crops: 5%
other : 82% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land: 1,250 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards: numerous volcanoes in mountains, with occasional violent earthquakes; Caribbean coast subject to hurricanes and other tropical storms

Environment - current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified : Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Law of the Sea

Geography - note: no natural harbors on west coast

People

Population: 13,314,079 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years:41.8% (male 2,841,486; female 2,725,343)
15-64 years: 54.5% (male 3,629,363; female 3,630,273)
65 years and over : 3.7% (male 227,369; female 260,245) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.57% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:34.17 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate: 6.67 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate:-1.79 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years : 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.87 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 44.55 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 66.85 years
male:64.16 years
female : 69.66 years (2002 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.51 children born/woman (2002 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Guatemalan(s)
adjective: Guatemalan

Ethnic groups: Mestizo (mixed Amerindian-Spanish or assimilated Amerindian - in local Spanish called Ladino), approximately 55%, Amerindian or predominantly Amerindian, approximately 43%, whites and others 2%

Religions: Roman Catholic, Protestant, traditional Mayan

Languages: Spanish 60%, Amerindian languages 40% (23 Amerindian languages, including Quiche, Cakchiquel, Kekchi)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 63.6%
male:68.7%
female : 58.5% (2000 est.)

Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Guatemala
conventional short form: Guatemala
local long form: Republica de Guatemala
local short form: Guatemala

Data code: GT

Government type: republic

National capital: Guatemala

Administrative divisions: 22 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Alta Verapaz, Baja Verapaz, Chimaltenango, Chiquimula, El Progreso, Escuintla, Guatemala, Huehuetenango, Izabal, Jalapa, Jutiapa, Peten, Quetzaltenango, Quiche, Retalhuleu, Sacatepequez, San Marcos, Santa Rosa, Solola, Suchitepequez, Totonicapan, Zacapa

Independence: 15 September 1821 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 15 September (1821)

Constitution: 31 May 1985, effective 14 January 1986
note: suspended 25 May 1993 by President SERRANO; reinstated 5 June 1993 following ouster of president

Legal system: civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Alfonso Antonio PORTILLO Cabrera (since 14 January 2000); Vice President Juan Francisco REYES Lopez (since 14 January 2000);
note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Alfonso Antonio PORTILLO Cabrera (since 14 January 2000); Vice President Juan Francisco REYES Lopez (since 14 January 2000);
note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a four-year term; election last held 7 November 1999; runoff held 26 December 1999 (next to be held NA November 2003)
election results : Alfonso Antonio PORTILLO Cabrera elected president; percent of vote - Alfonso Antonio PORTILLO Cabrera (FRG) 68%, Oscar BERGER Perdomo (PAN) 32%

Legislative branch: unicameral Congress of the Republic or Congreso de la Republica (113 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections:last held 7 November 1999 (next to be held NA November 2003)
note: for the 7 November 1999 election, the number of congressional seats increased to 113 from 80
election results:percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - FRG 63, PAN 37, ANN 9, DCG 2, UD/LOV 1, PLP 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justicia (thirteen members serve concurrent five-year terms and elect a president of the Court each year from among their number; the president of the Supreme Court of Justice also supervises trial judges around the country, who are named to five-year terms); Constitutional Court or Corte de Constitutcionalidad (five judges are elected for concurrent five-year terms by Congress, each serving one year as president of the Constitutional Court; one is elected by Congress, one elected by the Supreme Court of Justice, one appointed by the President, one elected by Superior Counsel of Universidad San Carlos de Guatemala, and one by Colegio de Abogados)

Political parties and leaders:Authentic Integral Development or DIA [Jorge Luis ORTEGA]; Democratic Union or UD [Jose Luis CHEA Urruela]; Green Party or LOV [Jose ASTURIAS Rudecke]; Guatemalan Christian Democracy or DCG [Vinicio CEREZO Arevalo]; Guatemalan National Revolutionary Unity or URNG [Pablo MONSANTO, also known as Jorge SOTO]; Guatemalan Republican Front or FRG [Efrain RIOS Montt]; New Nation Alliance or ANN [leader NA], which includes the URNG; National Advancement Party or PAN [Leonel LOPEZ Rodas]; Progressive Liberator Party or PLP [Acisclo VALLADARES Molina]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Agrarian Owners Group or UNAGRO; Alliance Against Impunity or AAI; Committee for Campesino Unity or CUC; Coordinating Committee of Agricultural, Commercial, Industrial, and Financial Associations or CACIF; Mutual Support Group or GAM

International organization participation: BCIE, CACM, CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, LAES, LAIA (observer), NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW (signatory), PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Ariel RIVERA Irias
chancery: 2220 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone : [1] (202) 745-4952 through 4954
FAX: [1] (202) 745-1908
consulate(s) general : Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, and San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Prudence BUSHNELL
embassy: 7-01 Avenida la Reforma, Zone 10, Guatemala City
mailing address: APO AA 34024
telephone : (502) 331-1541
FAX: (502) 334-8477

Flag description: three equal vertical bands of light blue (hoist side), white, and light blue with the coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms includes a green and red quetzal (the national bird) and a scroll bearing the inscription LIBERTAD 15 DE SEPTIEMBRE DE 1821 (the original date of independence from Spain) all superimposed on a pair of crossed rifles and a pair of crossed swords and framed by a wreath

Economy

Economy - overview: The agricultural sector accounts for about one-fourth of GDP, two-thirds of exports, and half of the labor force. Coffee, sugar, and bananas are the main products. Former President ARZU (1996-2000) worked to implement a program of economic liberalization and political modernization. The 1996 signing of the peace accords, which ended 36 years of civil war, removed a major obstacle to foreign investment. In 1998, Hurricane Mitch caused relatively little damage to Guatemala compared to its neighbors. Ongoing challenges include increasing government revenues, negotiating further assistance from international donors, and increasing the efficiency and openness of both government and private financial operations. Despite low international prices for Guatemala's main commodities, the economy grew by 3% in 2000 and 2.3% in 2001. Guatemala, along with Honduras and El Salvador, recently concluded a free trade agreement with Mexico and has moved to protect international property rights. However, the PORTILLO administration has undertaken a review of privatizations under the previous administration, thereby creating some uncertainty among investors.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $48.3 billion (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 2.3% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $3,700 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 23%
industry: 20%
services: 57% (2000 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 7.6% (2001)

Labor force:
total: 4.2 million (1999 est.)
by occupation: agriculture 50%, industry 15%, services 35% (1999 est.)

Unemployment rate: 47.5% (1999 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $2.1 billion
expenditures : $2.5 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)

Industries: sugar, textiles and clothing, furniture, chemicals, petroleum, metals, rubber, tourism

Industrial production growth rate: 4.1% (1999)

Electricity - capacity: 973,500 kW (1995)

Electricity - production: 5.929 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 4.797 billion kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products: sugarcane, corn, bananas, coffee, beans, cardamom; cattle, sheep, pigs, chickens

Exports:
total value: $2.9 billion (f.o.b., 2001)
commodities: coffee, sugar, bananas, cardamom, beef
partners: US 57%, El Salvador 8.7%, Costa Rica 3.7%, Nicaragua 2.8%, Germany 2.6% (2000)

Imports:
total value : $4.9 billion (f.o.b., 2001)
commodities: fuel and petroleum products, machinery, grain, fertilizers, motor vehicles
partners: US 35.2%, Mexico 12.6%, South Korea 7.9%, El Salvador 6.4%, Venezuela 3.9% (2000)

Debt - external: $4.5 billion (2001 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: $212 million (1995)

Currency: 1 quetzal (Q) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: quetzales per US dollar - 8.0165 (January 2002), 7.8586 (2001), 7.7632 (2000), 7.3856 (1999), 6.3947 (1998), 6.0653 (1997)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 665,061 (June 2000)

Telephone system: fairly modern network centered in the city of Guatemala
domestic: c NA
international : connected to Central American Microwave System; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 130, FM 487, shortwave 15 (2000)

Radios: 835,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 26 (plus 27 repeaters) (1997)

Televisions: 1.323 million (1997)

Transportation

Railways:
total : 884 km (102 km privately owned)
narrow gauge: 884 km 0.914-m gauge (single track)

Highways:
total: 13,856 km
paved:4,370 km (including 140 km of expressways)
unpaved : 9,486 km (1998)

Waterways:990 km
260 km navigable year round; additional 730 km navigable during high-water season

Pipelines: crude oil 275 km

Ports and harbors: Champerico, Puerto Barrios, Puerto Quetzal, San Jose, Santo Tomas de Castilla

Merchant marine: none (2002 est.)

Airports: 475 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 11
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m : 4
under 914 m: 2 (2001)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 464
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 89
914 to 1,523 m : 123
under 914 m:331 (2001)

Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49 : 3,186,894 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 2,080,504 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 140,358 (2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $120 million (FY99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 0.6% (FY99)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: the "Line of Adjacency", established as an agreed limit in 2000 to check squatters settling in Belize, remains in place while OAS assists states to resolve Guatemalan territorial claims in Belize and Guatemalan maritime access to the Caribbean Sea

Illicit drugs: transit country for cocaine shipments; illicit producer of opium poppy and cannabis for the international drug trade; the government has an active eradication program for cannabis and opium poppy