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Countries > Uzbekistan Uzbekistan Flag

Languages   4 languages are spoken in Uzbekistan. We have 374 products available for those languages.

Capital: Tashkent
Population: 24,000,000
Uzbekistan Map


Location: Central Asia, north of Afghanistan

Geographic coordinates: 41 00 N, 64 00 E

Map references: Commonwealth of Independent States

total: 447,400 sq km
land: 425,400 sq km
water: 22,000 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly larger than California

Land boundaries:
total: 6,221 km
border countries: Afghanistan 137 km, Kazakstan 2,203 km, Kyrgyzstan 1,099 km, Tajikistan 1,161 km, Turkmenistan 1,621 km

Coastline: 0 km
note : Uzbekistan borders the Aral Sea (420 km)

Maritime claims: none (doubly landlocked)

Climate: mostly midlatitude desert, long, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid grassland in east

Terrain: mostly flat-to-rolling sandy desert with dunes; broad, flat intensely irrigated river valleys along course of Amu Darya and Syr Darya; Fergana Valley in east surrounded by mountainous Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan; shrinking Aral Sea in west

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Sariqarnish Kuli -12 m
highest point: Adelunga Toghi 4,301 m

Natural resources: natural gas, petroleum, coal, gold, uranium, silver, copper, lead and zinc, tungsten, molybdenum

Land use:
arable land: 9%
permanent crops : 1%
permanent pastures: 46%
forests and woodland: 3%
other: 41% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:42,810 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: drying up of the Aral Sea is resulting in growing concentrations of chemical pesticides and natural salts; these substances are then blown from the increasingly exposed lake bed and contribute to desertification; water pollution from industrial wastes and the heavy use of fertilizers and pesticides is the cause of many human health disorders; increasing soil salinization; soil contamination from agricultural chemicals, including DDT

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: Uzbekistan and Liechtenstein are the only two doubly landlocked countries in the world


Population: 25,563,441 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 35.5% (male 4,617,110; female 4,457,065)
15-64 years: 59.8% (male 7,567,510; female 7,726,753)
65 years and over : 4.7% (male 482,137; female 712,866) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.62% (2002 est.)

Birth rate: 26.09 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate: 7.98 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.94 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth : 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.68 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 71.72 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population:63.9 years
male : 60.38 years
female: 67.6 years (2002 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.03 children born/woman (2002 est.)

noun: Uzbekistani(s)
adjective: Uzbekistani

Ethnic groups: Uzbek 80%, Russian 5.5%, Tajik 5%, Kazak 3%, Karakalpak 2.5%, Tatar 1.5%, other 2.5% (1996 est.)

Religions: Muslim 88% (mostly Sunnis), Eastern Orthodox 9%, other 3%

Languages: Uzbek 74.3%, Russian 14.2%, Tajik 4.4%, other 7.1%

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99%
male: 99%
female: 99% (yearend 1996)


Country name:
conventional long form : Republic of Uzbekistan
conventional short form: Uzbekistan
local long form: Uzbekiston Respublikasi
local short form: none
former : Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic

Data code: UZ

Government type: republic

National capital: Tashkent (Toshkent)

Administrative divisions: 12 wiloyatlar (singular - wiloyat), 1 autonomous republic* (respublikasi), and 1 city** (shahri); Andijon Wiloyati, Bukhoro Wiloyati, Jizzakh Wiloyati, Farghona Wiloyati, Qoraqalpoghiston* (Nukus), Qashqadaryo Wiloyati (Qarshi), Khorazm Wiloyati (Urganch), Namangan Wiloyati, Nawoiy Wiloyati, Samarqand Wiloyati, Sirdaryo Wiloyati (Guliston), Surkhondaryo Wiloyati (Termiz), Toshkent Shahri**, Toshkent Wiloyati
note: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses)

Independence: 31 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: Independence Day, 1 September (1991)

Constitution: new constitution adopted 8 December 1992

Legal system: evolution of Soviet civil law; still lacks independent judicial system

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Islom KARIMOV (since 24 March 1990, when he was elected president by the then Supreme Soviet)
head of government: Prime Minister Otkir SULTONOV (since 21 December 1995)
cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president with approval of the Supreme Assembly
elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term; election last held 9 January 2000 (next to be held NA 2007); (previously was a five-year term, extended by national referendum on 27 January 2002) prime minister and deputy ministers appointed by the president
election results: Islom KARIMOV reelected president; percent of vote - Islom KARIMOV 91.9%, Abdulkhafiz JALALOV 4.2%

Legislative branch:unicameral Supreme Assembly or Oliy Majlis (250 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms); note - on 27 January 2002, a referendum was held that will make the Assembly bicameral on the 2004 elections
elections: last held 5 December and 19 December 1999 (next to be held NA December 2004)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - NDP 48, Self-Sacrificers Party 34, Fatherland Progress Party 20, Adolat Social Democratic Party 11, MTP 10, citizens' groups 16, local government 110, vacant 1
note: not all seats in the last Supreme Assembly election were contested; all parties in the Supreme Assembly support President KARIMOV

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges are nominated by the president and confirmed by the Supreme Assembly

Political parties and leaders: Adolat (Justice) Social Democratic Party [Anwar JURABAYEV, first secretary]; Democratic National Rebirth Party (Milly Tiklanish) or MTP [Aziz KAYUMOV, chairman]; People's Democratic Party or NDP (formerly Communist Party) [Abdulkhafiz JALOLOV, first secretary]; Self-Sacrificers Party or Fidokorlar National Democratic Party [Ahtam TURSUNOV, first secretary]; note - Fatherland Progress Party merged with Self-Sacrificers Party

Political pressure groups and leaders:Birlik (Unity) Movement [Abdurakhim POLAT, chairman]; Erk (Freedom) Democratic Party [Muhammad SOLIH, chairman] was banned 9 December 1992; Human Rights Society of Uzbekistan [Abdumannob POLAT, chairman]; Independent Human Rights Society of Uzbekistan [Mikhail ARDZINOV, chairman]

International organization participation: AsDB, CCC, CIS, EBRD, ECE, ECO, ESCAP, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, NACC, NAM, OIC, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Shavkat HAMRAKULOV
chancery: 1746 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 887-5300
FAX: [1] (202) 293-6804
consulate(s) general : New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador John Edward HERBST
embassy: 82 Chilanzarskaya, Tashkent
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone : [7] (3712) 77-14-07, 77-10-81, 77-69-86
FAX: [7] (3712) 40-63-35

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and green separated by red fimbriations with a crescent moon and 12 stars in the upper hoist-side quadrant


Economy - overview: Uzbekistan is a dry, landlocked country of which 11% consists of intensely cultivated, irrigated river valleys. More than 60% of its population lives in densely populated rural communities. Uzbekistan is now the world's second largest cotton exporter, a large producer of gold and oil, and a regionally significant producer of chemicals and machinery. Following independence in December 1991, the government sought to prop up its Soviet-style command economy with subsidies and tight controls on production and prices. The state continues to be a dominating influence in the economy and has so far failed to bring about much-needed structural changes. The IMF suspended Uzbekistan's $185 million standby arrangement in late 1996 because of governmental steps that made impossible fulfillment of Fund conditions. Uzbekistan has responded to the negative external conditions generated by the Asian and Russian financial crises by emphasizing import substitute industrialization and by tightening export and currency controls within its already largely closed economy. Economic policies that have repelled foreign investment are a major factor in the economy's stagnation. A growing debt burden, persistent inflation, and a poor business climate led to disappointing growth in 2001. However, in December 2001 the government voiced a renewed interest in economic reform, seeking advice from the IMF and other financial institutions.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $62 billion (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 3% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $2,500 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 33%
industry: 24%
services: 43% (2000 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 23% (2001 est.)

Labor force:
total: 11.9 million (1998 est.)
by occupation: agriculture 44%, industry 20%, services 36% (1995)

Unemployment rate: 10% plus another 20% underemployed (1999 est.)

revenues : $4 billion
expenditures: $4.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1999 est.)

Industries: textiles, food processing, machine building, metallurgy, natural gas

Industrial production growth rate: 3.5% (2000 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 11.82 million kW (1994)

Electricity - production:44.075 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 41.89 billion kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products: cotton, vegetables, fruits, grain; livestock

total value: $2.8 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
commodities: cotton, gold, natural gas, mineral fertilizers, ferrous metals, textiles, food products, autos
partners: Russia 16.7%, Switzerland 8.3%, UK 7.2%, Ukraine 4.7%, South Korea 3.3%, Kazakhstan 3.1% (2000)

total value:$2.5 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
commodities : grain, machinery and parts, consumer durables, other foods
partners: Russia 15.8%, South Korea 9.8%, US 8.7%, Germany 8.6%, Kazakhstan 7.3%, Ukraine 6.1% (2002)

Debt - external:$5.1 billion (2001 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: approximately $150 million from the US (2001)

Currency: iUzbekistani sum (UZS)

Exchange rates: Uzbekistani sums per US dollar - 687.0 (January 2002), 325.0 (January 2001), 141.4 (January 2000), 111.9 (February 1999), 110.95 (December 1998), 75.8 (September 1997)

Fiscal year: calendar year


Telephones: 1.98 million (1999)

Telephone system:antiquated and inadequate; in serious need of modernization
domestic: the domestic telephone system is being expanded and technologically improved, particularly in Tashkent and Samarqand, under contracts with prominent companies in industrialized countries; moreover, by 1998, six cellular networks had been placed in operation - four of the GSM type (Global System for Mobile Communication), one D-AMPS type (Digital Advanced Mobile Phone System), and one AMPS type (Advanced Mobile Phone System)
international:linked by landline or microwave radio relay with CIS member states and to other countries by leased connection via the Moscow international gateway switch; after the completion of the Uzbek link to the Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic cable, Uzbekistan will be independent of Russian facilities for international communications; Inmarsat also provides an international connection, albeit an expensive one; satellite earth stations - NA (1998)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 20, FM 7, shortwave 10 (1998)

Radios: 10.8 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 4 (plus two repeaters that relay Russian, Kazakh, Kyrgyz, and Tajik programs) (1997)

Televisions: 6.4 million (1997)


total: 3,656 km
broad gauge:3,656 km 1.520-m gauge (618 km electrified) (2000)

total:81,600 km
paved : 71,237 km (includes some all-weather gravel-surfaced roads)
unpaved: 10,363 km (these roads are made of unstabilized earth and are difficult to negotiate in wet weather) (1990)

Waterways: 1,100 (1990)

Pipelines: crude oil 250 km; petroleum products 40 km; natural gas 810 km (1992)

Ports and harbors: Termiz (Amu Darya river)

Airports: 267 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:
over 3,047 m :3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
under 914 m: 2 (2001)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total : 226
over 3,047 m :3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 8
1,524 to 2,437 m:11
914 to 1,523 m:13
under 914 m : 222 (2001)


Military branches: Army, Air and Air Defense, Security Forces (internal and border troops), National Guard

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49 : 6,747,221 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 5,478,766 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 274,602 (2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $200 million (FY97)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2% (FY97)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international:Uzbekistan border largely delimited with Kazakhstan, but unresolved dispute remains over sovereignty of two border villages, Bagys and Turkestan, and around the Arnasay dam; dispute over access to Sokh and other Uzbek enclaves in Kyrgyzstan mars progress on international boundary delimitation; Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan wrestle with sharing limited water resources and the regional environmental degradation caused by the shrinking Aral Sea; the undemarcated northern and western border with Uzbekistan is mined in many sections

Illicit drugs: limited illicit cultivation of cannabis and very small amounts of opium poppy, mostly for domestic consumption, almost entirely eradicated by an effective government eradication program; increasingly used as transshipment point for illicit drugs from Afghanistan to Russia and Western Europe and for acetic anhydride destined for Afghanistan

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