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Countries > Tanzania Tanzania Flag

Languages   11 languages are spoken in Tanzania. We have 137 products available for 9 of those languages.


Capital: Dar es Salaam
Population: 30,000,000
Click to Listen Play the National Anthem
Tanzania Map

Geography

Location: Eastern Africa, bordering the Indian Ocean, between Kenya and Mozambique

Geographic coordinates: 6 00 S, 35 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total : 945,090 sq km
land: 886,040 sq km
water: 59,050 sq km
note: includes the islands of Mafia, Pemba, and Zanzibar

Area - comparative: slightly larger than twice the size of California

Land boundaries:
total : 3,402 km
border countries: Burundi 451 km, Kenya 769 km, Malawi 475 km, Mozambique 756 km, Rwanda 217 km, Uganda 396 km, Zambia 338 km

Coastline: 1,424 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: varies from tropical along coast to temperate in highlands

Terrain: plains along coast; central plateau; highlands in north, south

Elevation extremes:
lowest point : Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Kilimanjaro 5,895 m

Natural resources: hydropower potential, tin, phosphates, iron ore, coal, diamonds, gemstones, gold, natural gas, nickel

Land use:
arable land: 3%
permanent crops : 1%
permanent pastures: 40%
forests and woodland: 38%
other: 18% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land: 1,500 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards: the tsetse fly; flooding on the central plateau during the rainy season

Environment - current issues: soil degradation; deforestation; desertification; destruction of coral reefs threatens marine habitats; recent droughts affected marginal agriculture

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Desertification

Geography - note: Kilimanjaro is highest point in Africa

People

Population: 37,187,939 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years:44.6% (male 8,338,764; female 8,247,789)
15-64 years: 52.5% (male 9,674,951; female 9,847,084)
65 years and over: 2.9% (male 483,760; female 595,591) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate:2.6% (2002 est.)

Birth rate: 39.12 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate: 13.02 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.08 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth : 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.81 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 77.85 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 51.7 years
male: 50.76 years
female: 52.67 years (2002 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.33 children born/woman (2002 est.)

Nationality:
noun : Tanzanian(s)
adjective: Tanzanian

Ethnic groups: mainland - native African 99% (of which 95% are Bantu consisting of more than 130 tribes), other 1% (consisting of Asian, European, and Arab)
note: Zanzibar - Arab, native African, mixed Arab and native African

Religions:mainland - Christian 30%, Muslim 35%, indigenous beliefs 35%; Zanzibar - more than 99% Muslim

Languages:Kiswahili or Swahili (official), Kiunguju (name for Swahili in Zanzibar), English (official, primary language of commerce, administration, and higher education), Arabic (widely spoken in Zanzibar), many local languages
note : Kiswahili (Swahili) is the mother tongue of Bantu people living in Zanzibar and nearby coastal Tanzania; although Kiswahili is Bantu in structure and origin, its vocabulary draws on a variety of sources, including Arabic and English, and it has become the lingua franca of central and eastern Africa; the first language of most people is one of the local languages

Literacy:
definition : age 15 and over can read and write Kiswahili (Swahili), English, or Arabic
total population: 67.8%
male: 79.4%
female: 56.8% (1995 est.)

Government

Country name:
conventional long form : United Republic of Tanzania
conventional short form: Tanzania
former: United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar

Data code: TZ

Government type: republic

National capital: Dar es Salaam
note: some government offices have been transferred to Dodoma, which is planned as the new national capital by the end of the 1990s

Administrative divisions: 25 regions; Arusha, Dar es Salaam, Dodoma, Iringa, Kigoma, Kilimanjaro, Lindi, Mara, Mbeya, Morogoro, Mtwara, Mwanza, Pemba North, Pemba South, Pwani, Rukwa, Ruvuma, Shinyanga, Singida, Tabora, Tanga, Zanzibar Central/South, Zanzibar North, Zanzibar Urban/West, Ziwa Magharibi

Independence: 26 April 1964; Tanganyika became independent 9 December 1961 (from UK-administered UN trusteeship); Zanzibar became independent 19 December 1963 (from UK); Tanganyika united with Zanzibar 26 April 1964 to form the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar; renamed United Republic of Tanzania 29 October 1964

National holiday: Union Day, 26 April (1964)

Constitution: 25 April 1977; major revisions October 1984

Legal system: based on English common law; judicial review of legislative acts limited to matters of interpretation; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Benjamin William MKAPA (since 23 November 1995); Vice President Dr. Ali Mohammed SHEIN (since 5 July 2001); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government; Prime Minister Frederick SUMAYE (since NA) does not function as the head of government
head of government:President Benjamin William MKAPA (since 23 November 1995); Vice President Dr. Ali Mohammed SHEIN (since 5 July 2001); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government; Prime Minister Frederick SUMAYE (since NA) does not function as the head of government
cabinet: Cabinet ministers, including the prime minister, are appointed by the president from among the members of the National Assembly
elections: president and vice president elected on the same ballot by popular vote for five-year terms; election last held 29 October 2000 (next to be held NA October 2005); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Benjamin William MKAPA reelected president; percent of vote - Benjamin William MKAPA 71.7%, Ibrahim Haruna LIPUMBA 16.3%, Augustine Lyatonga MREME 7.8%, John Momose CHEYO 4.2%

Legislative branch:unicameral National Assembly or Bunge (274 seats - 232 elected by popular vote, 37 allocated to women nominated by the president, five to members of the Zanzibar House of Representatives; members serve five-year terms); note - in addition to enacting laws that apply to the entire United Republic of Tanzania, the Assembly enacts laws that apply only to the mainland; Zanzibar has its own House of Representatives to make laws especially for Zanzibar (the Zanzibar House of Representatives has 50 seats, directly elected by universal suffrage to serve five-year terms)
elections:last held 29 October 2000 (next to be held NA October 2005)
election results : National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - CCM 244, CUF 16, CHADEMA 4, TLP 3, UDP 2, Zanzibar representatives 5; Zanzibar House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - CCM 34, CUF 16

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal; High Court

Political parties and leaders: Chama Cha Demokrasia na Maendeleo or CHADEMA [Bob MAKANI, chairman]; Chama Cha Mapinduzi or CCM (Revolutionary Party) [Benjamin William MKAPA, chairman]; Civic United Front or CUF [Seif Sharif HAMAD, secretary-general]; Democratic Party (unregistered) [Reverend Christopher MTIKLA]; National Convention for Construction and Reform or NCCR [James MBATIA, secretary general]; Tanzania Labor Party or TLP [Augustine Lyatonga MREMA, chairman]; Union for Multiparty Democracy or UMD [leader NA]; United Democratic Party or UDP [John CHEYO]

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, EADB, ECA, FAO, G- 6, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAU, SADC, UN, UNAVEM III, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Mustafa Salim NYANG'ANYI
chancery : 2139 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 939-6125
FAX: [1] (202) 797-7408

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Robert V. ROYALL
embassy: 36 Laibon Road (off Bagamoyo Road), Dar es Salaam
mailing address: P. O. Box 9123, Dar es Salaam
telephone: [255] (51) 66010 through 66015
FAX : [255] (51) 66701

Flag description: divided diagonally by a yellow-edged black band from the lower hoist-side corner; the upper triangle (hoist side) is green and the lower triangle is blue

Economy

Economy - overview:Tanzania is one of the poorest countries in the world. The economy is heavily dependent on agriculture, which accounts for half of GDP, provides 85% of exports, and employs 80% of the work force. Topography and climatic conditions, however, limit cultivated crops to only 4% of the land area. Industry is mainly limited to processing agricultural products and light consumer goods. The World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, and bilateral donors have provided funds to rehabilitate Tanzania's deteriorated economic infrastructure. Growth in 1991-2001 featured a pickup in industrial production and a substantial increase in output of minerals, led by gold. Natural gas exploration in the Rufiji Delta looks promising and production could start by 2002. Recent banking reforms have helped increase private sector growth and investment. Continued donor support and solid macroeconomic policies should support steady real GDP growth of 5% in 2002 and 2003.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $22.1 billion (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 5% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $610 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 48.4%
industry:16.7%
services: 34.9% (2000 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 5% (2001 est.)

Labor force:
total: 13.495 million
by occupation: agriculture 80%, industry and services 20% (2000 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues : $1.01 billion
expenditures: $1.38 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY00/01 est.)

Industries: primarily agricultural processing (sugar, beer, cigarettes, sisal twine), diamond and gold mining, oil refining, shoes, cement, textiles, wood products, fertilizer

Industrial production growth rate: 8.4% (1999 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 440,000 kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 2.765 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 2.616 billion kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products: coffee, sisal, tea, cotton, pyrethrum (insecticide made from chrysanthemums), cashews, tobacco, cloves (Zanzibar), corn, wheat, cassava (tapioca), bananas, fruits, vegetables; cattle, sheep, goats

Exports:
total value: $827 million (f.o.b., 2001)
commodities: gold, coffee, cashew nuts, manufactures, cotton (2000)
partners: UK 22.0%, India 14.8%, Germany 9.9%, Netherlands 6.9% (2000)

Imports:
total value: $1.55 billion (f.o.b., 2001)
commodities: manufactured goods, machinery and transportation equipment, cotton piece goods, crude oil, foodstuffs
partners :South Africa 11.5%, Japan 9.3%, UK 7.0%, Australia 6.2% (2000)

Debt - external: $6.8 billion (2000 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: $963 million (1997)

Currency: 1 Tanzanian shilling (TZS) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Tanzanian shillings per US dollar - 924.70 (January 2002), 876.41 (2001), 800.41 (2000), 744.76 (1999), 664.67 (1998), 612.12 (1997)

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

Communications

Telephones: 127,000 (1998)

Telephone system:fair system operating below capacity and being modernized for better service; VSAT (very small aperture terminal) system under construction
domestic: trunk service provided by open wire, microwave radio relay, tropospheric scatter, and fiber-optic cable; some links being made digital
international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 12, FM 11, shortwave 2 (1998)

Radios: 8.8 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 3 (1999)

Televisions: 103,000 (1997)

Transportation

Railways:
total : 3,569 km (2001)
narrow gauge: 2,600 km 1.000-m gauge; 969 km 1.067-m gauge
note: the Tanzania-Zambia Railway Authority (TAZARA), which operates 1,860 km of 1.067-m narrow gauge track between Dar es Salaam and New Kapiri Mposhi in Zambia (of which 969 km are in Tanzania and 891 km are in Zambia) is not a part of Tanzania Railways Corporation; because of the difference in gauge, this system does not connect to Tanzania Railways

Highways:
total: 85,000 km
paved: 4,250 km
unpaved : 80,750 km (2001)

Waterways: Lake Tanganyika, Lake Victoria, Lake Nyasa

Pipelines: crude oil 982 km

Ports and harbors: Bukoba, Dar es Salaam, Kigoma, Lindi, Mkoani, Mtwara, Musoma, Mwanza, Tanga, Wete, Zanzibar

Merchant marine:
total: 8 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 30,371 GRT/41,269 DWT
ships by type: cargo 2, passenger/cargo 2, petroleum tanker 2, roll on/roll off 1, short-sea passenger 1 (2002 est.)

Airports: 125 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 11
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m :5
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2001)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 114
1,524 to 2,437 m: 18
914 to 1,523 m : 61
under 914 m:35 (2001)

Military

Military branches: Tanzanian People's Defense Force or TPDF (includes Army, Navy, and Air Force), paramilitary Police Field Force Unit, Militia

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 8,636,817 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 4,997,257 (2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $19 million (FY01)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 0.2% (FY01)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: dispute with Malawi over the boundary in Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi); Democratic Republic of the Congo-Tanzania-Zambia tripoint in Lake Tanganyika may no longer be indefinite since it has been informally reported that the indefinite section of the Democratic Republic of the Congo-Zambia boundary has been settled

Illicit drugs: growing role in transshipment of Southwest and Southeast Asian heroin and South American cocaine destined for European and US markets and of South Asian methaqualone bound for Southern Africa