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Countries > Slovakia Slovakia Flag
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Languages   2 languages are spoken in Slovakia. We have 204 products available for those languages.


Capital: Bratislava
Population: 5,355,000
Click to Listen Play the National Anthem
Slovakia Map

Geography

Location: Central Europe, south of Poland

Geographic coordinates: 48 40 N, 19 30 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
total: 48,845 sq km
land: 48,800 sq km
water: 45 sq km

Area - comparative: about twice the size of New Hampshire

Land boundaries:
total: 1,355 km
border countries: Austria 91 km, Czech Republic 215 km, Hungary 515 km, Poland 444 km, Ukraine 90 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: temperate; cool summers; cold, cloudy, humid winters

Terrain: rugged mountains in the central and northern part and lowlands in the south

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Bodrok River 94 m
highest point: Gerlachovka 2,655 m

Natural resources: brown coal and lignite; small amounts of iron ore, copper and manganese ore; salt

Land use:
arable land: 31%
permanent crops : 3%
permanent pastures: 17%
forests and woodland: 41%
other: 8% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land: 1,740 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: air pollution from metallurgical plants presents human health risks; acid rain damaging forests

Environment - international agreements:
party to : Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol

Geography - note: landlocked

People

Population: 5,422,366 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 18.3% (male 508,256; female 484,739)
15-64 years : 70.1% (male 1,888,705; female 1,910,842)
65 years and over: 11.6% (male 237,770; female 392,054) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.14% (2002 est.)

Birth rate: 10.09 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate: 9.22 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.53 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years : 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.61 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 8.76 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 74.2 years
male :70.19 years
female: 78.41 years (2002 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.25 children born/woman (2002 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Slovak(s)
adjective: Slovak

Ethnic groups: Slovak 85.7%, Hungarian 10.7%, Gypsy 1.5% (the 1992 census figures underreport the Gypsy/Romany community, which could reach 500,000 or more), Czech 1%, Ruthenian 0.3%, Ukrainian 0.3%, German 0.1%, Polish 0.1%, other 0.3%

Religions: Roman Catholic 60.3%, atheist 9.7%, Protestant 8.4%, Orthodox 4.1%, other 17.5%

Languages: Slovak (official), Hungarian

Literacy: NA

Government

Country name:
conventional long form : Slovak Republic
conventional short form: Slovakia
local long form: Slovenska Republika
local short form: Slovensko

Data code: LO

Government type: parliamentary democracy

National capital: Bratislava

Administrative divisions: 8 regions (kraje, singular - kraj); Banskobystricky, Bratislavsky, Kosicky, Nitriansky, Presovsky, Trenciansky, Trnavsky, Zilinsky

Independence: 1 January 1993 (from Czechoslovakia)

National holiday: Slovak Constitution Day, 1 September (1992); Anniversary of Slovak National Uprising, 29 August (1944)

Constitution: ratified 1 September 1992, fully effective 1 January 1993

Legal system: civil law system based on Austro-Hungarian codes; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; legal code modified to comply with the obligations of Organization on Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) and to expunge Marxist-Leninist legal theory

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Rudolf SCHUSTER (since 15 June 1999)
head of government : Prime Minister Mikulas DZURINDA (since 30 October 1998)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister
elections: president elected by direct, popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 29 May 1999 (next to be held NA May/June 2004); following National Council elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of a majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the president
election results: Rudolf SCHUSTER elected president in the first direct, popular election; percent of vote - Rudolf SCHUSTER 57%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Council of the Slovak Republic or Narodna Rada Slovenskej Republiky (150 seats; members are elected on the basis of proportional representation to serve four-year terms)
elections:last held 25-26 September 1998 (next to be held NA September 2002)
election results:percent of vote by party - HZDS 27%, SDK 26.3%, SDL 14.7%, SMK 9.1%, SNS 9.1%, SOP 8%; seats by party - governing coalition 93 (SDK 42, SDL 23, SMK 15, SOP 13), opposition 57 (HZDS 43, SNS 14); note - seating as of January 2002 - governing coalition 90 (SDK 23, SDL 21, SOP 16, SMK 15, KDH 9, DS 6), opposition 51 (HZDS 43, SNS 8), PSNS 6, independents 3

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges are elected by the National Parliament

Political parties and leaders:Christian Democratic Movement or KDH [Pavol HRUSOVSKY]; Democratic Party or DS [Ludovit KANIK]; Direction (Smer) [Robert FICO]; Liberal Democratic Union or LDU [Jan BUDAJ]; Movement for a Democratic Slovakia-People's Party or HZDS-LS [Vladimir MECIAR]; Party of Civic Understanding or SOP [Pavol HAMZIK]; note - SSDS and SZS joined the SOP parliamentary caucus; Party of the Democratic Left or SDL [Pvel KONCOS]; Party of the Hungarian Coalition or SMK [Bela BUGAR]; Real Slovak National Party or PSNS [Jan SLOTA]; Slovak Democratic and Christian Union or SDKU [Mikulas DZURINDA]; note - this is DZURINDA's new party for the 2002 elections; he remains chairman of a rump and splintering SDK; Slovak Democratic Coalition or SDK (loose parliamentary club grouping, representing members of the smaller SSDS, SZS, and those committed to run under SDKU in 2002) [Mikulas DZURINDA]; Slovak National Party or SNS [Anna MALIKOVA]; Yes (ANO) [Paval RUSKO]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Association of Employers of Slovakia; Association of Towns and Villages or ZMOS; Confederation of Trade Unions or KOZ; Metal Workers Unions or KOVO and METALURG

International organization participation: Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CCC, CE (guest), CEI, CERN, EBRD, ECE, EU applicant), FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NACC, NSG, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNAVEM III, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNTAES, UPU, WEU (associate partner), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Martin BUTORA
chancery: (temporary) Suite 250, 2201 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone : [1] (202) 965-5160
FAX: [1] (202) 965-5166

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Ronald WEISER
embassy: Hviezdoslavovo Namestie 4, 81102 Bratislava
mailing address : use embassy street address
telephone: [42] (7) 533-0861, 533-3338
FAX: [42] (7) 533-5439

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of white (top), blue, and red superimposed with the Slovak cross in a shield centered on the hoist side; the cross is white centered on a background of red and blue

Economy

Economy - overview: Slovakia has mastered much of the difficult transition from a centrally planned economy to a modern market economy. The DZURINDA government made excellent progress in 2001 in macroeconomic stabilization and structural reform. Major privatizations are nearly complete, the banking sector is almost completely in foreign hands, and foreign investment has picked up. Slovakia's economy exceeded expectations in 2001, despite recession in key export markets. Revival of domestic demand, partly due to a rise in real wages, offset slowing export growth to help drive the economy to its strongest expansion since 1998. Solid domestic demand is expected to boost economic growth to 3.4% in 2002, and about 4% in 2003. Unemployment, rising to 19.8% at the end of 2001, remained the economy's Achilles' heel. The government faces other strong challenges in 2002, especially the maintenance of fiscal balance ahead of the September 2002 parliamentary election, cutting budget and current account deficits, and privatization of the Slovak energy and power monopolies.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $62 billion (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 3% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $11,500 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 4%
industry: 32%
services: 64% (2000 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 7.4% (2001 est.)

Labor force:
total: 3 million (1999)
by occupation : industry 29.3%, agriculture 8.9%, construction 8%, transport and communication 8.2%, services 45.6% (1994)

Unemployment rate: 19.8% (yearend 2001 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $5.2 billion
expenditures :$5.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1999)

Industries: metal and metal products; food and beverages; electricity, gas, coke, oil, and nuclear fuel; chemicals and manmade fibers; machinery; paper and printing; earthenware and ceramics; transport vehicles; textiles; electrical and optical apparatus; rubber products

Industrial production growth rate: 4% (2001 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 7.12 million kW (1994)

Electricity - production:27.53 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 25.203 billion kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products: grains, potatoes, sugar beets, hops, fruit; hogs, cattle, poultry; forest products

Exports:
total value: $12.5 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
commodities : machinery and transport equipment 18.7%; chemicals 13.4%; miscellaneous manufactured goods 13.1%; raw materials 5.0% (1995)
partners: EU 59.0% (Germany 26.8%, Italy 9.2%, Austria 8.4%), Czech Republic 17.4% (2000)

Imports:
total value : $14.4 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
commodities: machinery and transport equipment 29.0%; fuels 18.0%; intermediate manufactured goods 17.6%; miscellaneous manufactured goods 8.0% (1995)
partners: EU 48.9% (Germany 25.1%, Italy 6.2%), Russia 17.0%, Czech Republic 14.7% (2000)

Debt - external: $7.8 billion (2001 est.)

Economic aid: $421.9 million (1995)

Currency: 1 koruna (SKK) = 100 halierov

Exchange rates: koruny per US dollar - 47.792 (September 2001), 46.035 (2000), 41.363 (1999), 35.233 (1998), 33.616 (1997)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 1,934,558 (1998)

Telephone system: a modernization and privatization program is increasing accessibility to telephone service, reducing the waiting time for new subscribers, and generally improving service quality
domestic: predominantly an analog system that is now receiving digital equipment and is being enlarged with fiber-optic cable, especially in the larger cities; mobile cellular capability has been added
international:three international exchanges (one in Bratislava and two in Banska Bystrica) are available; Slovakia is participating in several international telecommunications projects that will increase the availability of external services

Radio broadcast stations:AM 15, FM 78, shortwave 2 (1998)

Radios: 3.12 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 38 (plus 864 repeaters) (1995)

Televisions: 2.62 million (1997)

Transportation

Railways:
total: 3,660 km
broad gauge: 102 km 1.520-m gauge
standard gauge : 3,507 km 1.435-m gauge (1424 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 51 km (46 km 1,000-m gauge; 5 km 0.750-m gauge) (2001)

Highways:
total: 17,710 km
paved: 17,533 km (including 288 km of expressways)
unpaved: 177 km (1998 est.)

Waterways: 172 km on the Danube

Pipelines: petroleum products NA km; natural gas 2,700 km

Ports and harbors: Bratislava, Komarno

Merchant marine:
total: 3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 15,191 GRT/19,489 DWT

Airports: 34 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:
total : 17
over 3,047 m:2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 7 (2001)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total:17
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m : 9
under 914 m: 7 (2001)

Military

Military branches: Army, Air and Air Defense Forces, Reserve Force (Home Guards)

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 1,486,728 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males : 1,136,775 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 45,502 (2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $406 million (2002)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.89% (2002)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Slovakia requested additional ICJ judgment in 1998, and talks continue to set modalities to assure Hungarian compliance with 1997 ICJ decision to proceed with construction of Gabcikovo-Nagymaros Dam, abandoned by Hungary in 1989

Illicit drugs: minor transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and hashish bound for Western Europe