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Countries > Serbia

Languages   2 languages are spoken in Serbia. We have 101 products available for those languages.


Capital: Belgrade
Population: 9,000,000
Serbia Map

Introduction

Current issues: Serbia and Montenegro have asserted the formation of a joint independent state, but this entity has not been formally recognized as a state by the US; the US view is that the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY) has dissolved and that none of the successor republics represents its continuation.

Geography

Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea, between Albania and Bosnia and Herzegovina

Geographic coordinates: 44 00 N, 21 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
total: 102,350 sq km (Serbia 88,412 sq km; Montenegro 13,938 sq km)
land: 102,136 sq km (Serbia 88,412 sq km; Montenegro 13,724 sq km)
water: 214 sq km (Serbia 0 sq km; Montenegro 214 sq km)

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Kentucky (Serbia is slightly larger than Maine; Montenegro is slightly smaller than Connecticut)

Land boundaries:
total: 2,246 km
border countries : Albania 287 km (114 km with Serbia, 173 km with Montenegro), Bosnia and Herzegovina 527 km (312 km with Serbia, 215 km with Montenegro), Bulgaria 318 km (with Serbia), Croatia (north) 241 km (with Serbia), Croatia (south) 25 km (with Montenegro), Hungary 151 km (with Serbia), The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia 221 km (with Serbia), Romania 476 km (with Serbia)
note: the internal boundary between Montenegro and Serbia is 211 km

Coastline: 199 km (Montenegro 199 km, Serbia 0 km)

Maritime claims: NA

Climate: in the north, continental climate (cold winter and hot, humid summers with well distributed rainfall); central portion, continental and Mediterranean climate; to the south, Adriatic climate along the coast, hot, dry summers and autumns and relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall inland

Terrain: extremely varied; to the north, rich fertile plains; to the east, limestone ranges and basins; to the southeast, ancient mountain and hills; to the southwest, extremely high shoreline with no islands off the coast

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
highest point: Daravica 2,656 m

Natural resources: oil, gas, coal, antimony, copper, lead, zinc, nickel, gold, pyrite, chrome

Land use:
arable land: NA%
permanent crops: NA%
permanent pastures : NA%
forests and woodland: NA%
other: NA%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: destructive earthquakes

Environment - current issues: pollution of coastal waters from sewage outlets, especially in tourist-related areas such as Kotor; air pollution around Belgrade and other industrial cities; water pollution from industrial wastes dumped into the Sava which flows into the Danube

Environment - international agreements:
party to: none of the selected agreements
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: controls one of the major land routes from Western Europe to Turkey and the Near East; strategic location along the Adriatic coast

People

Population: 11,223,853 (July 1997 est.) (Montenegro - 680,212; Serbia - 10,543,641)

Age structure:
0-14 years : Montenegro - 22% (male 78,101; female 73,067); Serbia - 21% (male 1,146,238; female 1,066,842)
15-64 years: Montenegro - 68% (male 231,641; female 227,245); Serbia - 67% (male 3,544,055; female 3,495,673)
65 years and over: Montenegro - 10% (male 28,880; female 41,278); Serbia - 12% (male 555,592; female 735,241) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: Montenegro - 0.00%; Serbia - -0.13% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: Montenegro - 13.93 births/1,000 population; Serbia - 12.68 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: Montenegro - 7.33 deaths/1,000 population; Serbia - 9.64 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: Montenegro: -6.61 migrant(s)/1,000 population; Serbia: -4.34 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth : Montenegro - 1.09 male(s)/female; Serbia - 1.08 male(s)/female
under 15 years: Montenegro - 1.07 male(s)/female; Serbia - 1.07 male(s)/female
15-64 years: Montenegro - 1.02 male(s)/female; Serbia - 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: Montenegro - 0.70 male(s)/female; Serbia - 0.76 male(s)/female
all ages : Montenegro - 0.99 male(s)/female Serbia - 0.99 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: Montenegro - 11.50 deaths/1,000 live births; Serbia - 17.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population : Montenegro - 75.96 years; Serbia - 72.9 years
male: Montenegro - 72.48 years; Serbia - 70.51 years
female: Montenegro - 79.76 Serbia - 75.47 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: Montenegro - 1.80 children born/woman; Serbia - 1.76 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Serb(s) and Montenegrin(s)
adjective: Serbian and Montenegrin

Ethnic groups: Serbs 63%, Albanians 14%, Montenegrins 6%, Hungarians 4%, other 13%

Religions: Orthodox 65%, Muslim 19%, Roman Catholic 4%, Protestant 1%, other 11%

Languages: Serbo-Croatian 95%, Albanian 5%

Literacy: NA

Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Serbia and Montenegro
local long form: none
local short form: Srbija-Crna Gora
note : Serbia and Montenegro has self-proclaimed itself the "Federal Republic of Yugoslavia," but the US view is that the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY) has dissolved and that none of the successor republics represents its continuation

Data code: Serbia - SR; Montenegro - MW

Government type: republic

National capital: Belgrade

Administrative divisions: 2 republics (pokajine, singular - pokajina); and 2 nominally autonomous provinces*; Kosovo*, Montenegro, Serbia, Vojvodina*

Independence: 11 April 1992 (Federal Republic of Yugoslavia formed as self-proclaimed successor to the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia - SFRY)

National holiday: St. Vitus Day, 28 June

Constitution: 27 April 1992

Legal system: based on civil law system

Suffrage: 16 years of age, if employed; 18 years of age, universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Zoran LILIC (since 25 June 1993); note - Slobodan MILOSEVIC is president of Serbia (since 9 December 1990); Momir BULATOVIC is president of Montenegro (since 23 December 1990)
head of government: Prime Minister Radoje KONTIC (since 29 December 1992); Deputy Prime Ministers Jovan ZEBIC (since NA March 1993), Uros KLIKOVAC (since 15 September 1994), and Nikola SAINOVIC (since 15 September 1995)
cabinet: Federal Executive Council
elections: president elected by the Federal Assembly for a four-year term; election last held 25 June 1993 (next to be held NA 1997); prime minister nominated by the president
election results : Zoran LILIC elected president; percent of legislative vote - NA

Legislative branch: bicameral Federal Assembly or Savezna Skupstina consists of the Chamber of Republics or Vece Republika (40 seats, 20 Serbian, 20 Montenegrin; members distributed on the basis of party representation in the republican assemblies to serve four-year terms) and the Chamber of Citizens or Vece Gradjana (138 seats, 108 Serbian with half elected by constituency majorities and half by proportional representation, 30 Montenegrin with six elected by constituency and 24 proportionally; members serve four-year terms)
elections: Chamber of Republics - last held 24 December 1996 (next to be held NA 2000); Chamber of Citizens - last held 3 November 1996 (next to be held NA 2000)
election results : Chamber of Republics - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; note - seats are filled on a proportional basis to reflect the composition of the legislatures of the republics of Montenegro and Serbia; Chamber of Citizens - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - SPS/JUL/ND 64, Zajedno 22, DPSCG 20, SRS 16, NS 8, SVM 3, other 5; note - Zajedno coalition includes SPO, DS, GSS

Judicial branch: Federal Court or Savezni Sud, judges are elected by the Federal Assembly; Constitutional Court, judges are elected by the Federal Assembly

Political parties and leaders: Serbian Socialist Party or SPS (former Communist Party) [Slobodan MILOSEVIC]; Serbian Radical Party or SRS [Vojislav SESELJ]; Serbian Renewal Movement or SPO [Vuk DRASKOVIC, president]; Democratic Party or DS [Zoran DJINDJIC]; Democratic Party of Serbia or DSS [Vojislav KOSTUNICA]; Democratic Party of Socialists of Montenegro or DPSCG [Momir BULATOVIC, president]; People's Party of Montenegro or NS [Milan PAROSKI]; Liberal Alliance of Montenegro [Slavko PEROVIC]; Democratic Community of Vojvodina Hungarians or DZVM [Sandor PALL]; League of Communists-Movement for Yugoslavia or SK-PJ [Dragan ATANASOVSKI]; Democratic Alliance of Kosovo or LDK [Dr. Ibrahim RUGOVA, president]; Party of Democratic Action or SDA [Sulejman UGLJANIN]; Civic Alliance of Serbia or GSS [Vesna PESIC, chairman]; Socialist Party of Montenegro or SP [leader NA]; Yugoslav United Left or JUL [Mirjana MARKOVIC (MILOSEVIC's wife)]; New Democracy or ND [Dusan MIHAJLOVIC]; Alliance of Vojvodina Hungarians or SVM

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

Diplomatic representation in the US: the US and Serbia and Montenegro do not maintain full diplomatic relations; the Embassy of the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia continues to function in the US
chief of mission : Ambassador (vacant); Counselor, Charge d'Affaires ad interim Nebojsa VUJOVIC
chancery: 2410 California St. NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 462-6566

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US and Serbia and Montenegro do not maintain full diplomatic relations
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Chief of Mission Richard M. MILES
embassy: Kneza Milosa 50, 11000 Belgrade
mailing address : American Embassy, Belgrade, United States Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-5070
telephone: [381] (11) 645655
FAX: [381] (11) 645332

Economy

Economy - overview: The swift collapse of the Yugoslav federation in 1991 has been followed by highly destructive warfare, the destabilization of republic boundaries, and the breakup of important interrepublic trade flows. Output in Serbia and Montenegro dropped by half in 1992-93. Like the other former Yugoslav republics, it had depended on its sister republics for large amounts of energy and manufactures. Wide differences in climate, mineral resources, and levels of technology among the republics accentuated this interdependence, as did the communist practice of concentrating much industrial output in a small number of giant plants. The breakup of many of the trade links, the sharp drop in output as industrial plants lost suppliers and markets, and the destruction of physical assets in the fighting all have contributed to the economic difficulties of the republics. One singular factor in the economic situation of Serbia and Montenegro is the continuation in office of a communist government that is primarily interested in political and military mastery, not economic reform. Hyperinflation ended with the establishment of a new currency unit in June 1993; prices were relatively stable in 1995. Reliable statistics are hard to come by; the GDP estimate is extremely rough. The economic boom anticipated by the government after the suspension of UN sanctions in December 1995 failed to materialize in 1996 and early 1997, exacerbating the regime's financial problems.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $21 billion (1995 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 6% (1995 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,900 (1995 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 25%
industry : 50%
services: 25% (1994 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 79% (1995 est.)

Labor force:
total : 2.178 million
by occupation: industry 41%, services 35%, trade and tourism 12%, transportation and communication 7%, agriculture 5% (1994)

Unemployment rate: more than 35% (1995 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $NA
expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: machine building (aircraft, trucks, and automobiles; tanks and weapons; electrical equipment; agricultural machinery); metallurgy (steel, aluminum, copper, lead, zinc, chromium, antimony, bismuth, cadmium); mining (coal, bauxite, nonferrous ore, iron ore, limestone); consumer goods (textiles, footwear, foodstuffs, appliances); electronics, petroleum products, chemicals, and pharmaceuticals

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - capacity: 11.78 million kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 33.77 billion kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 2,798 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: cereals, fruits, vegetables, tobacco, olives; cattle, sheep, goats

Exports:
total value : $1.4 billion (1995 est.)
commodities: manufactured goods, food and live animals, raw materials
partners: Russia, Italy, Germany

Imports:
total value: $2.4 billion (1995 est.)
commodities: machinery and transport equipment, fuels and lubricants, manufactured goods, chemicals, food and live animals, raw materials
partners : Germany, Italy, Russia

Debt - external: $11.2 billion (1995 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient : ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Yugoslav New Dinar (YD) = 100 paras

Exchange rates: Yugoslav New Dinars (YD) per US $1 - official rate: 4.9 (September 1996) 1.5 (early 1995); black market rate: 2 to 3 (early 1995)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 700,000

Telephone system:
domestic: NA
international : satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: 27 (public or state-owned 1, private 26)

Radios: 2.015 million

Television broadcast stations: 8 (state owned 1, privately owned 7) plus 1 Satellite TV down link and 48 cable distribution systems

Televisions: 1 million

Transportation

Railways:
total: 3,960 km
standard gauge: 3,960 km 1.435-m gauge (1,341 km electrified) (1994)

Highways:
total: 47,000 km
paved : 28,059 km
unpaved: 18,941 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: NA km

Pipelines: crude oil 415 km; petroleum products 130 km; natural gas 2,110 km

Ports and harbors: Bar, Belgrade, Kotor, Novi Sad, Pancevo, Tivat

Merchant marine:
total: 22 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 353,202 GRT/594,745 DWT (Montenegro owns 21 ships totaling 326,133 GRT/544,600 DWT - controlled by Montenegrin beneficial owners; Serbia owns 1 bulk carrier totaling 17,069 GRT/50,145 DWT - controlled by Serbian beneficial owners)
ships by type: bulk 9, cargo 8, container 3, short-sea passenger ferry 1
note: Montenegrin ships operate under the flags of Malta, Panama, and Cyprus; the Serbian ship operates under the flag of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; no ships remain under Yugoslav flag (1996 est.)

Airports: 44 (Serbia 39, Montenegro 5) (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 28
over 3,047 m: 2 (Serbia 2, Montenegro 0)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5 (Serbia 3, Montenegro 2)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5 (Serbia 4, Montenegro 1)
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (Serbia 2, Montenegro 0)
under 914 m : 14 (Serbia 14, Montenegro 0)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 16
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 (Serbia 2, Montenegro 0)
914 to 1,523 m: 14 (Serbia 12, Montenegro 2) (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: People's Army (includes Ground Forces with internal and border troops, Naval Forces, and Air and Air Defense Forces), Civil Defense

Military manpower - military age: Montenegro - 19; Serbia - NA

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: Montenegro - 187,041; Serbia - 2,734,293 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: Montenegro - 150,933 (1997 est.); Serbia - 2,191,041 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: Montenegro - 5,518; Serbia - NA (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: 6.5 billion dinars (1995 est.); note - conversion of defense expenditures into US dollars using the current exchange rate could produce misleading results

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 24% (1995 est.)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: disputes with Bosnia and Herzegovina over Serbian populated areas; Albanian majority in Kosovo seeks independence from Serbian republic; Eastern Slavonia, which was held by ethnic Serbs during the ethnic conflict, is currently being overseen by the UN Transitional Administration for Eastern Slavonia; reintegration of Eastern Slavonia into Croatia will occur in 1997; Serbia and Montenegro is disputing Croatia's claim to the Prevlaka Peninsula in southern Croatia because it controls the entrance to Kotor Bay in Montenegro; Prevlaka is currently under observation by the UN military observer mission in Prevlaka (UNMOP)

Illicit drugs: major transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin moving to Western Europe on the Balkan route