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Capital: Lisbon
Population: 9,906,000
Click to Listen Play the National Anthem
Portugal Map


Location: Southwestern Europe, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, west of Spain

Geographic coordinates: 39 30 N, 8 00 W

Map references: Europe

total: 92,391 sq km
land: 91,951 sq km
water: 440 sq km
note: includes Azores and Madeira Islands

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Indiana

Land boundaries:
total: 1,214 km
border countries: Spain 1,214 km

Coastline: 1,793 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: maritime temperate; cool and rainy in north, warmer and drier in south

Terrain: mountainous north of the Tagus, rolling plains in south

Elevation extremes:
lowest point : Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Ponta do Pico in Azores 2,351 m

Natural resources: fish, forests (cork), tungsten, iron ore, uranium ore, marble

Land use:
arable land : 26%
permanent crops: 9%
permanent pastures: 9%
forests and woodland: 36%
other : 20% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land: 6,320 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards: Azores subject to severe earthquakes

Environment - current issues: soil erosion; air pollution caused by industrial and vehicle emissions; water pollution, especially in coastal areas

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified : Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Tropical Timber 94

Geography - note: Azores and Madeira Islands occupy strategic locations along western sea approaches to Strait of Gibraltar


Population: 10,084,245 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 16.9% (male 875,485; female 827,670)
15-64 years: 67.3% (male 3,324,215; female 3,463,301)
65 years and over: 15.8% (male 644,761; female 948,813) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.18% (2002 est.)

Birth rate: 11.5 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate: 10.21 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over : 0.68 male(s)/female
total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 5.84 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 76.14 years
male: 72.65 years
female: 79.87 years (2002 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.48 children born/woman (2002 est.)

noun: Portuguese (singular and plural)
adjective: Portuguese

Ethnic groups: homogeneous Mediterranean stock in mainland, Azores, Madeira Islands; citizens of black African descent who immigrated to mainland during decolonization number less than 100,000

Religions: Roman Catholic 94%, Protestant (1995)

Languages: Portuguese

definition : age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 87.4%
male: NA%
female: NA%


Country name:
conventional long form: Portuguese Republic
conventional short form: Portugal
local long form: Republica Portuguesa
local short form: Portugal

Data code: PO

Government type: parliamentary democracy

National capital: Lisbon

Administrative divisions: 18 districts (distritos, singular - distrito) and 2 autonomous regions* (regioes autonomas, singular - regiao autonoma); Aveiro, Acores (Azores)*, Beja, Braga, Braganca, Castelo Branco, Coimbra, Evora, Faro, Guarda, Leiria, Lisboa, Madeira*, Portalegre, Porto, Santarem, Setubal, Viana do Castelo, Vila Real, Viseu

Independence: 1140 (independent republic proclaimed 5 October 1910)

National holiday: Day of Portugal, 10 June (1580)

Constitution: 25 April 1976, revised 30 October 1982, 1 June 1989, and 5 November 1992

Legal system: civil law system; the Constitutional Tribunal reviews the constitutionality of legislation; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Jorge SAMPAIO (since 9 March 1996)
head of government:Prime Minister Jose Manuel DURAO Barroso (since 6 April 2002)
cabinet : Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister
note: there is also a Council of State that acts as a consultative body to the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 14 January 2001 (next to be held NA January 2006); following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or leader of a majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the president
election results: Jorge SAMPAIO reelected president; percent of vote - Jorge SAMPAIO (Socialist) 55.8%, Joaquim FERREIRA Do Amaral (Social Democrat) 34.5%, Antonio ABREU (Communist) 5.1%

Legislative branch: uniunicameral Assembly of the Republic or Assembleia da Republica (230 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections : last held 17 March 2002 (next to be held NA 2006)
election results:percent of vote by party - PSD 40.1%, PS 37.8%, PP 8.7%, PCP/PEV 6.9%, The Left Bloc 2.7%; seats by party - PSD 105, PS 96, PP 14, PCP/PEV 12, The Left Bloc 3

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Supremo Tribunal de Justica, judges appointed for life by the Conselho Superior da Magistratura

Political parties and leaders:The Greens or PEV [no leader]; Popular Party or PP [Paulo PORTAS]; Portuguese Communist Party/The Greens or PCP/PEV [Carlos CARVALHAS]; Portuguese Socialist Party or PS [Eduardo Ferro RODRIGUES]; Social Democratic Party or PSD [Jose Manuel DURAO Barroso]; United Democratic Coalition or CDU [leader NA]; The Left Bloc [no leader]


Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Joao Alberto Bacelar ROCHA PARIS
chancery: 2125 Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone : [1] (202) 328-8610
FAX: [1] (202) 462-3726
consulate(s) general: Boston, New York, Newark (New Jersey), and San Francisco
consulate(s): Los Angeles, New Bedford (Massachusetts), Providence (Rhode Island), Washington, DC

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador -designate John N. PALMER
embassy: Avenida das Forcas Armadas, 1600 Lisbon
mailing address : PSC 83, APO AE 09726
telephone: [351] (1) 7266600, 7266659, 7268670, 7268880
FAX: [351] (1) 7269109
consulate(s): Ponta Delgada (Azores)

Flag description: two vertical bands of green (hoist side, two-fifths) and red (three-fifths) with the Portuguese coat of arms centered on the dividing line


Economy - overview: Portugal has become a diversified and increasingly service-based economy since joining the European Community in 1986. Over the past decade, successive governments have privatized many state-controlled firms and liberalized key areas of the economy, including the financial and telecommunications sectors. The country qualified for the European Monetary Union (EMU) in 1998 and began circulating its new currency, the euro, on 1 January 2002 along with 11 other EU member economies. Economic growth has been above the EU average for much of the past decade, but GDP per capita stands at just 75% of that of the leading EU economies. The government has failed to reign in a widening deficit and to advance structural reforms needed to boost Portugal's economic competitiveness. A poor educational system, in particular, has been an obstacle to greater productivity and growth. Portugal has been increasingly overshadowed by lower-cost producers in Central Europe and Asia as a target for foreign direct investment.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $174.1 billion (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 1.7% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $17,300 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture : 3.8%
industry: 30.5%
services: 65.7% (2000)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 4.4% (2001 est.)

Labor force:
total: 5.1 million (2000)
by occupation : services 60%, industry 30%, agriculture 10% (1999 est.)

Unemployment rate: 4.4% (2001 est.)

revenues:$45 billion
expenditures: $48 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2001 est.)

Industries: textiles and footwear; wood pulp, paper, and cork; metalworking; oil refining; chemicals; fish canning; wine; tourism

Industrial production growth rate: 2.4% (2001 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 8.83 million kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 43.242 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 41.146 billion kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products: grain, potatoes, olives, grapes; sheep, cattle, goats, poultry, meat, dairy products

total value: $24.8 billion (f.o.b., 2001)
commodities: clothing and footwear, machinery, cork and paper products, hides
partners : EU 79% (Spain 19%, Germany 18%, France 13%, UK 11%, Benelux 6%), US 6% (2000)

total value: $37.8 billion (f.o.b., 2001)
commodities: machinery and transport equipment, agricultural products, chemicals, petroleum, textiles
partners: EU 74% (Spain 25%, Germany 14%, France 11%, Italy 7%, UK 6%), US 3%, Japan 3% (2000)

Debt - external: $13.1 billion (1997 est.)

Economic aid:
donor: ODA, $271 million (1995)

Currency: EUR; 1 Portuguese escudo (PTE) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: euros per US dollar - 1.1324 (January 2002), 1.1175 (2001), 1.0854 (2000), 0.9386 (1999); Portuguese escudos per US dollar - 180.10 (1998), 175.31 (1997)

Fiscal year: calendar year


Telephones:5.3 million (yearend 1998)

Telephone system:undergoing rapid development in recent years, Portugal's telephone system, by the end of 1998, achieved a state-of-the-art network with broadband, high-speed capabilities and a main line telephone density of 53%
domestic: integrated network of coaxial cables, open wire, microwave radio relay, and domestic satellite earth stations
international: 6 submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), NA Eutelsat; tropospheric scatter to Azores; note - an earth station for Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean region) is planned

Radio broadcast stations: AM 47, FM 172 (many are repeaters), shortwave 2 (1998)

Radios: 3.02 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 62 (plus 166 repeaters)

Televisions: 3.31 million (1997)


total: 2,850 km
broad gauge: 2,576 km 1.668-m gauge (623 km electrified; 426 km double-tracked)
narrow gauge: 274 km 1.000-m gauge (2001)

total: 68,732 km
paved: 59,110 km (including 587 km of expressways)
unpaved: 9,622 km (1999)

Waterways: 820 km navigable; relatively unimportant to national economy, used by shallow-draft craft limited to 300 metric-ton cargo capacity

Pipelines: crude oil 22 km; petroleum products 58 km
note: there is a 700 km natural gas pipeline which connects with one in Spain carrying Algerian natural gas which is to open in 1997; the secondary lines that will be 300 km long have not yet been built

Ports and harbors: Aveiro, Funchal (Madeira Islands), Horta (Azores), Leixoes, Lisbon, Porto, Ponta Delgada (Azores), Praia da Vitoria (Azores), Setubal, Viana do Castelo

Merchant marine:
total: 140 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,001,440 GRT/1,519,701 DWT
ships by type: bulk 10, cargo 71, chemical tanker 17, container 10, liquefied gas 8, multi-functional large-load carrier 1, petroleum tanker 10, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 6, short-sea passenger 4, vehicle carrier 2
note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Belgium 1, British Virgin Islands 1, Cyprus 1, Denmark 6, Germany 20, Greece 1, Iceland 1, Italy 16, Lebanon 1, Liberia 1, Monaco 2, Norway 5, Panama 5, Spain 22, Switzerland 8, United Kingdom 1, Virgin Islands (UK) 1 (2002 est.)

Airports: 67 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:
total : 40
over 3,047 m: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m: 9
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 14
under 914 m: 7 (2001)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 27
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 26 (2001)


Military branches: Army, Navy (includes Marines), Air Force, National Republican Guard, Fiscal Guard, Public Security Police

Military manpower - military age: 20 years of age (2002 est.)

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 2,525,848 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 2,024,526 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 71,404 (2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $1.286 billion (FY99/00)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2.2% (FY99/00)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: None

Illicit drugs: important gateway country for Latin American cocaine entering the European market; transshipment point for hashish from North Africa to Europe; consumer of Southwest Asian heroin

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