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Countries > Peru Peru Flag
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Capital: Lima
Population: 25,000,000
Click to Listen Play the National Anthem
Peru Map

Geography

Location: Western South America, bordering the South Pacific Ocean, between Chile and Ecuador

Geographic coordinates: 10 00 S, 76 00 W

Map references: South America

Area:
total: 1,285,220 sq km
land : 1.28 million sq km
water: 5,220 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Alaska

Land boundaries:
total: 6,940 km
border countries: Bolivia 900 km, Brazil 1,560 km, Chile 160 km, Colombia 2,900 km, Ecuador 1,420 km

Coastline: 2,414 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf : 200 nm
territorial sea: 200 nm

Climate: varies from tropical in east to dry desert in west

Terrain: western coastal plain (costa), high and rugged Andes in center (sierra), eastern lowland jungle of Amazon Basin (selva)

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Nevado Huascaran 6,768 m

Natural resources: copper, silver, gold, petroleum, timber, fish, iron ore, coal, phosphate, potash

Land use:
arable land : 3%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 21%
forests and woodland: 66%
other: 10% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land: 11,950 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards: earthquakes, tsunamis, flooding, landslides, mild volcanic activity

Environment - current issues: deforestation; overgrazing of the slopes of the costa and sierra leading to soil erosion; desertification; air pollution in Lima; pollution of rivers and coastal waters from municipal and mining wastes

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's highest navigable lake, with Bolivia

People

Population: 27,949,639 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 34% (male 4,820,892; female 4,671,205)
15-64 years : 61.1% (male 8,598,328; female 8,492,830)
65 years and over: 4.9% (male 627,601; female 738,783) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.66% (2002 est.)

Birth rate: 23.36 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate: 5.74 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.05 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth : 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 38.18 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population:70.59 years
male : 68.18 years
female:73.12 years (2002 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.89 children born/woman (2002 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Peruvian(s)
adjective: Peruvian

Ethnic groups: Amerindian 45%, mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 37%, white 15%, black, Japanese, Chinese, and other 3%

Religions: Roman Catholic

Languages: Spanish (official), Quechua (official), Aymara

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population:88.3%
male: 94.5%
female: 83% (1995 est.)

Government

Country name:
conventional long form : Republic of Peru
conventional short form: Peru
local long form: Republica del Peru
local short form: Peru

Data code: PE

Government type: republic

National capital: Lima

Administrative divisions: 24 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento) and 1 constitutional province* (provincia constitucional); Amazonas, Ancash, Apurimac, Arequipa, Ayacucho, Cajamarca, Callao*, Cusco, Huancavelica, Huanuco, Ica, Junin, La Libertad, Lambayeque, Lima, Loreto, Madre de Dios, Moquegua, Pasco, Piura, Puno, San Martin, Tacna, Tumbes, Ucayali
note: the 1979 constitution mandated the creation of regions (regiones, singular - region) to function eventually as autonomous economic and administrative entities; so far, 12 regions have been constituted from 23 of the 24 departments - Amazonas (from Loreto), Andres Avelino Caceres (from Huanuco, Pasco, Junin), Arequipa (from Arequipa), Chavin (from Ancash), Grau (from Tumbes, Piura), Inca (from Cusco, Madre de Dios, Apurimac), La Libertad (from La Libertad), Los Libertadores-Huari (from Ica, Ayacucho, Huancavelica), Mariategui (from Moquegua, Tacna, Puno), Nor Oriental del Maranon (from Lambayeque, Cajamarca, Amazonas), San Martin (from San Martin), Ucayali (from Ucayali); formation of another region has been delayed by the reluctance of the constitutional province of Callao to merge with the department of Lima; because of inadequate funding from the central government and organizational and political difficulties, the regions have yet to assume major responsibilities; the 1993 constitution retains the regions but limits their authority; the 1993 constitution also reaffirms the roles of departmental and municipal governments

Independence: 28 July 1821 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 28 July (1821)

Constitution: 31 December 1993

Legal system: based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state:President Alejandro TOLEDO Manrique (since 28 July 2001); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government; additionally two vice presidents are provided for by the constitution, First Vice President Raul DIEZ Canseco (since 28 July 2001) and Second Vice President David WAISMAN (since 28 July 2001)
head of government:President Alejandro TOLEDO Manrique (since 28 July 2001); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government; additionally two vice presidents are provided for by the constitution, First Vice President Raul DIEZ Canseco (since 28 July 2001) and Second Vice President David WAISMAN (since 28 July 2001)
note:Prime Minister Roberto DANINO (since 28 July 2001) does not exercise executive power; this power is in the hands of the president
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections : president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; special presidential and congressional elections held 8 April 2001, with runoff election held 3 June 2001; next to be held 9 April 2006
election results: President Alejandro TOLEDO Manrique elected president in runoff election; percent of vote - Alejandro TOLEDO Manrique 53.1%, Alan GARCIA 46.9%

Legislative branch: unicameral Congress of the Republic of Peru or Congresso de la Republica del Peru (120 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections:last held 8 April 2001 (next to be held 9 April 2006)
election results: percent of vote by party - Peru Posible 26.3%, APRA 19.7%, Unidad Nacional 13.8%, FIM 11.0%, others 29.2%; seats by party - Peru Posible 47, APRA 28, Unidad Nacional 17, FIM 11, others 17

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de Justicia), judges are appointed by the National Council of the Judiciary

Political parties and leaders:American Popular Revolutionary Alliance or APRA [Alan GARCIA]; Independent Moralizing Front or FIM [Fernando OLIVERA Vega]; National Unity (Unidad Nacional) or UN [Lourdes FLORES Nano]; Peru Posible or PP [Luis SOLARI]; Popular Action or AP [Javier DIAZ Orihuela]; Solucion Popular [Carlos BOLANA]; Somos Peru or SP [Alberto ANDRADE]; Union for Peru or UPP [Roger GUERRA Garcia]

Political pressure groups and leaders:leftist guerrilla groups include Shining Path [Abimael GUZMAN Reynoso (imprisoned), Gabriel MACARIO (top leader at-large)]; Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement or MRTA [Victor POLAY (imprisoned), Hugo AVALLENEDA Valdez (top leader at-large)]

International organization participation: AG, CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, LAES, LAIA, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Allan WAGNER
chancery: 1700 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone : [1] (202) 833-9860 through 9869
FAX: [1] (202) 659-8124
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Paterson (New Jersey), San Francisco, San Juan (Puerto Rico)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission : Ambassador John R. HAMILTON
embassy: Avenida Encalada, Cuadra 17, Monterrico, Lima
mailing address: P. O. Box 1995, Lima 1; American Embassy (Lima), APO AA 34031
telephone: [51] (1) 434-3000
FAX: [51] (1) 434-3037

Flag description: three equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), white, and red with the coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms features a shield bearing a llama, cinchona tree (the source of quinine), and a yellow cornucopia spilling out gold coins, all framed by a green wreath

Economy

Economy - overview: Thanks to strong foreign investment and the cooperation between the government and the IMF and World Bank, growth was strong in 1994-97 and inflation was brought under control. In 1998, El Nino's impact on agriculture, the financial crisis in Asia, and instability in Brazilian markets undercut growth. And 1999 was another lean year for Peru, with the aftermath of El Nino and the Asian financial crisis working its way through the economy. Political instability resulting from the presidential election and FUJIMORI's subsequent departure from office limited growth in 2000. The downturn in the global economy further depressed growth in 2001. President TOLEDO, who assumed the presidency in July 2001, is working to reinvigorate the economy and reduce unemployment. Economic growth in 2002 is projected to be 3 to 3.5%.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $132 billion (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: -0.3% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $4,800 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 10%
industry: 35%
services: 55% (2001 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 1.5% (2001 est.)

Labor force:
total:7.5 million (2000 est.)
by occupation: agriculture, mining and quarrying, manufacturing, construction, transport, services

Unemployment rate: 9%; widespread underemployment (2001 est.)

Budget:
revenues:$10.4 billion
expenditures: $10.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2002 est.)

Industries: mining of metals, petroleum, fishing, textiles, clothing, food processing, cement, auto assembly, steel, shipbuilding, metal fabrication

Industrial production growth rate: 1.5% (2001 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 4,520,200 kW (1995)

Electricity - production: 1.5% (2001 est.)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 18.301 billion kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products: coffee, cotton, sugarcane, rice, wheat, potatoes, plantains, coca; poultry, red meats, dairy products, wool; fish catch of 6.9 million metric tons (1990)

Exports:
total value : $7.3 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
commodities: copper, zinc, fishmeal, crude petroleum and byproducts, lead, refined silver, coffee, cotton
partners: US 28%, UK 8%, Switzerland 8%, China 6%, Japan, Chile, Brazil (2000)

Imports:
total value : $7.4 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
commodities: machinery, transport equipment, foodstuffs, petroleum, iron and steel, chemicals, pharmaceuticals
partners:US 27%, Chile 8%, Spain 6%, Venezuela 4%, Colombia, Brazil, Japan (2000)

Debt - external: $33.1 billion (2001 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient : $895.1 million (1995)

Currency: 1 nuevo sol (PEN) = 100 centimos

Exchange rates: nuevo sol per US dollar - 3.4400 (November 2001), 3.509 (2001), 3.4900 (2000), 3.3833 (1999), 2.9300 (1998), 2.6642 (1997)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 1.509 million (1998)

Telephone system: adequate for most requirements
domestic : nationwide microwave radio relay system and a domestic satellite system with 12 earth stations
international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 472, FM 198, shortwave 189 (1999)

Radios:6.65 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 13 (plus 112 repeaters) (1997)

Televisions: 3.06 million (1997)

Transportation

Railways:
total: 2,102 km
standard gauge: 1,695 km 1.435-m gauge
narrow gauge: 407 km 0.914-m gauge (2001)

Highways:
total: 72,900 km
paved: 8,700 km
unpaved : 64,200 km (1999 est.)

Waterways:8,808 km; 8,600 km of navigable tributaries of Amazon system and 208 km of Lago Titicaca

Pipelines: crude oil 800 km; natural gas and natural gas liquids 64 km

Ports and harbors: Callao, Chimbote, Ilo, Matarani, Paita, Puerto Maldonado, Salaverry, San Martin, Talara, Iquitos, Pucallpa, Yurimaguas
note: Iquitos, Pucallpa, and Yurimaguas are all on the upper reaches of the Amazon and its tributaries

Merchant marine:
total : 8 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 63,767 GRT/91,395 DWT
ships by type: bulk 1, cargo 7 (1996 est.)

Airports: 239 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 47
over 3,047 m: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m : 20
1,524 to 2,437 m:13
914 to 1,523 m: 8
under 914 m: 1 (2001)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total : 192
1,524 to 2,437 m: 25
914 to 1,523 m: 65
under 914 m:102 (2001)

Military

Military branches: Army (Ejercito Peruano), Navy (Marina de Guerra del Peru; includes Naval Air, Marines, and Coast Guard), Air Force (Fuerza Aerea del Peru), National Police

Military manpower - military age: 20 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49 : 7,356,395 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 4,944,952 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 276,458 (2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $1 billion (FY01)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.8% (FY01)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: three sections of the boundary with Ecuador are in dispute

Illicit drugs: still world's largest coca leaf producer with some 94,400 hectares under cultivation in 1996, even though down 18% from 1995; source of supply for most of the world's coca paste and cocaine base; most of cocaine base is shipped to Colombian drug dealers for processing into cocaine for the international drug market, but exports of finished cocaine are increasing