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Countries > Oman Oman Flag

Languages   One language is spoken in Oman. We have 298 products available for that language.

Capital: Muscat
Population: 2,163,000
Click to Listen Play the National Anthem
Oman Map


Location: Middle East, bordering the Arabian Sea, Gulf of Oman, and Persian Gulf, between Yemen and UAE

Geographic coordinates: 21 00 N, 57 00 E

Map references: Middle East

total: 212,460 sq km
land: 212,460 sq km
water : 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Kansas

Land boundaries:
total: 1,374 km
border countries: Saudi Arabia 676 km, UAE 410 km, Yemen 288 km

Coastline: 2,092 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone : 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: dry desert; hot, humid along coast; hot, dry interior; strong southwest summer monsoon (May to September) in far south

Terrain: vast central desert plain, rugged mountains in north and south

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Arabian Sea 0 m
highest point: Jabal ash Sham 2,980 m

Natural resources: petroleum, copper, asbestos, some marble, limestone, chromium, gypsum, natural gas

Land use:
arable land : 0%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 5%
forests and woodland: NA%
other: 95% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land: 620 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards: summer winds often raise large sandstorms and dust storms in interior; periodic droughts

Environment - current issues: rising soil salinity; beach pollution from oil spills; very limited natural fresh water resources

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ship Pollution
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: strategic location with small foothold on Musandam Peninsula controlling Strait of Hormuz, a vital transit point for world crude oil


Population: 2,713,462
note: includes 527,078 non-nationals (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 41.9% (male 579,065; female 556,923)
15-64 years: 55.7% (male 914,494; female 597,948)
65 years and over: 2.4% (male 34,555; female 30,477) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.41% (2002 est.)

Birth rate: 37.76 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate: 4.03 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.35 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.53 male(s)/female
65 years and over:1.13 male(s)/female
total population: 1.29 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate:21.77 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 72.31 years
male :70.15 years
female: 74.57 years (2002 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.99 children born/woman (2002 est.)

noun : Omani(s)
adjective: Omani

Ethnic groups: Arab, Baluchi, South Asian (Indian, Pakistani, Sri Lankan, Bangladeshi), African

Religions: Ibadhi Muslim 75%, Sunni Muslim, Shi'a Muslim, Hindu

Languages: Arabic (official), English, Baluchi, Urdu, Indian dialects

definition: NA
total population: approaching 80%
male : NA%
female: NA%


Country name:
conventional long form: Sultanate of Oman
conventional short form : Oman
local long form: Saltanat Uman
local short form: Uman

Data code: MU

Government type: monarchy

National capital: Muscat

Administrative divisions: 6 regions (mintaqah, singular - mintaqat) and 2 governorates* (muhafazah, singular - muhafazat) Ad Dakhiliyah, Al Batinah, Al Wusta, Ash Sharqiyah, Az Zahirah, Masqat, Musandam*, Zufar*

Independence: 1650 (expulsion of the Portuguese)

National holiday: National Day, 18 November (1940)

Constitution: none; note - on 6 November 1996, Sultan QABOOS issued a royal decree promulgating a new basic law which, among other things, clarifies the royal succession, provides for a prime minister, bars ministers from holding interests in companies doing business with the government, establishes a bicameral Omani council, and guarantees basic civil liberties for Omani citizens

Legal system: based on English common law and Islamic law; ultimate appeal to the sultan; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: in Oman's most recent elections in 2000, limited to approximately 175,000 Omanis chosen by the government to vote in elections for the Majlis ash-Shura

Executive branch:
chief of state: Sultan and Prime Minister QABOOS bin Said Al Said (since 23 July 1970); note - the monarch is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government : Sultan and Prime Minister QABOOS bin Said Al Said (since 23 July 1970); note - the monarch is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet : Cabinet appointed by the sultan
elections: none; the sultan is a hereditary monarch

Legislative branch: bicameral Majlis Oman consists of an upper chamber or Majlis al-Dawla (48 seats; members appointed by the monarch; has advisory powers only) and a lower chamber or Majlis al-Shura (83 seats; members elected by limited suffrage for three-year term, however, the monarch makes final selections and can negate election results; body has some limited power to propose legislation, but otherwise has only advisory powers)
elections: last held NA September 2000 (next to be held NA September 2003)
election results: NA; note - two women were elected for the first time to the Majlis al-Shura, about 100,000 people voted

Judicial branch: Supreme Court
note: the nascent civil court system, administered by region, has non-Islamic judges as well as traditional Islamic judges

Political parties and leaders: none

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: ABEDA, AFESD, AL, AMF, ESCWA, FAO, G-77, GCC, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Mohamed Ali AL KHUSAIBY
chancery: 2535 Belmont Road, NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 387-1980 through 1982
FAX : [1] (202) 745-4933

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Charge d'Affaires Robert W. DRY
embassy: Jameat A'Duwal Al Arabiya Street, Al Khuwair area, Muscat
mailing address: domestic - Unit 73000, Box 1, APO AE 09890-3000; international - P. O. Box 202, Code No. 115, Medinat Qaboos, Muscat
telephone: [968] 698989 (Medinat Qaboos, switchboard)
FAX: [968] 699779

Flag description: three horizontal bands of white, red, and green of equal width with a broad, vertical, red band on the hoist side; the national emblem (a khanjar dagger in its sheath superimposed on two crossed swords in scabbards) in white is centered at the top of the vertical band


Economy - overview: Oman's economic performance improved significantly in 2000 due largely to the upturn in oil prices. The government is moving ahead with privatization of its utilities, the development of a body of commercial law to facilitate foreign investment, and increased budgetary outlays. Oman continues to liberalize its markets and joined the World Trade Organization (WTrO) in November 2000. GDP growth improved in 2001 despite the global slowdown.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $21.5 billion (2001

GDP - real growth rate: 7.4% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $8,200 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture : 3%
industry: 40%
services : 57% (1999 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 1% (2001 est.)

Labor force:
total: 920,000 (2002 est.)
by occupation: agriculture NA%, industry NA%, services NA%

Unemployment rate: NA%

revenues :$9.2 billion
expenditures: $6.9 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)

Industries: crude oil production and refining, natural gas production, construction, cement, copper

Industrial production growth rate:4% (2000 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 1.74 million kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 8.1 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 7.533 billion kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products: dates, limes, bananas, alfalfa, vegetables; camels, cattle; annual fish catch averages 100,000 metric tons

total value: $10.9 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
commodities: petroleum 75%, reexports, fish, processed copper, textiles
partners: Japan 21%, Thailand 18%, China 16%, South Korea 12%, UAE 12%, US 3% (2001)

total value: $5.4 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
commodities: machinery, transportation equipment, manufactured goods, food, livestock, lubricants
partners : UAE 23% (largely reexports), Japan 16%, UK 13%, Italy 7%, Germany 5%, US 5% (2001)

Debt - external: $5.3 billion (2000 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient : $76.4 million (1995)

Currency: 1 Omani rial (OMR) = 1,000 baiza

Exchange rates: Omani rials (RO) per US$1 - 0.3845 (fixed rate since 1986)

Fiscal year: calendar year


Telephones: 201,000 (1997)

Telephone system: modern system consisting of open wire, microwave, and radiotelephone communication stations; limited coaxial cable
domestic: open wire, microwave, radiotelephone communications, and a domestic satellite system with 8 earth stations
international : satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) and 1 Arabsat

Radio broadcast stations: AM 3, FM 9, shortwave 2 (1999)

Radios: 1.4 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 13 (plus 25 low-power repeaters) (1999)

Televisions: 1.6 million (1997)


Railways: 0 km

total:32,800 km
paved: 9,840 km (including 550 km of expressways)
unpaved: 22,960 km (1996)

Pipelines: crude oil 1,300 km; natural gas 1,030 km

Ports and harbors: Matrah, Mina' al Fahl, Mina' Raysut

Merchant marine:
total: 3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 16,306 GRT/8,210 DWT
ships by type: cargo 1, passenger 1, passenger-cargo 1 (2002 est.)

Airports: 143 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 6
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m:1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2001)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 137
over 3,047 m : 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
1,524 to 2,437 m : 54
914 to 1,523 m: 38
under 914 m:36 (2001)

Heliports: 1 (2001)


Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, paramilitary (includes Royal Oman Police)

Military manpower - military age: 14 years of age(2002 est.)

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 780,292 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males : 434,026 (2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $2,424,400,000 (FY01)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 12.2% (FY01)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Oman signed a boundary treaty with the UAE in 1999, but the completed boundary is not expected until the end of 2002; undefined segments of the Oman-UAE boundary remain with Ra's al-Khaymah and Ash Shariqah (Sharjah) emirates, including the Musandam Peninsula, where an administrative boundary substitutes for an international boundary

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