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Capital: Rabat
Population: 31,000,000
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Morocco Map


Location: Northern Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, between Algeria and Western Sahara

Geographic coordinates: 32 00 N, 5 00 W

Map references: Africa

total: 446,550 sq km
land: 446,300 sq km
water: 250 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly larger than California

Land boundaries:
total: 2,017.9 km
border countries: Algeria 1,559 km, Western Sahara 443 km, Spain (Ceuta) 6.3 km, Spain (Melilla) 9.6 km

Coastline: 1,835 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone : 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: Mediterranean, becoming more extreme in the interior

Terrain: northern coast and interior are mountainous with large areas of bordering plateaus, intermontane valleys, and rich coastal plains

Elevation extremes:
lowest point : Sebkha Tah -55 m
highest point: Jebel Toubkal 4,165 m

Natural resources: phosphates, iron ore, manganese, lead, zinc, fish, salt

Land use:
arable land: 21%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 47%
forests and woodland: 20%
other : 11% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 12,580 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: northern mountains geologically unstable and subject to earthquakes; periodic droughts

Environment - current issues: land degradation/desertification (soil erosion resulting from farming of marginal areas, overgrazing, destruction of vegetation); water supplies contaminated by raw sewage; siltation of reservoirs; oil pollution of coastal waters

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea

Geography - note: strategic location along Strait of Gibraltar


Population: 31,167,783 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years : 33.8% (male 5,364,948; female 5,166,666)
15-64 years: 61.5% (male 9,518,503; female 9,640,292)
65 years and over: 4.7% (male 661,054; female 816,320) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.68% (2002 est.)

Birth rate: 23.69 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate: 5.86 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate:-1.09 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over:0.81 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 46.49 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 69.73 years
male : 67.49 years
female: 72.08 years (2002 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.97 children born/woman (2002 est.)

noun : Moroccan(s)
adjective: Moroccan

Ethnic groups: Arab-Berber 99.1%, other 0.7%, Jewish 0.2%

Religions: Muslim 98.7%, Christian 1.1%, Jewish 0.2%

Languages: Arabic (official), Berber dialects, French often the language of business, government, and diplomacy

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 43.7%
male : 56.6%
female: 31% (1995 est.)


Country name:
conventional long form: Kingdom of Morocco
conventional short form : Morocco
local long form: Al Mamlakah al Maghribiyah
local short form: Al Maghrib

Data code: MO

Government type: constitutional monarchy

National capital: Rabat

Administrative divisions: 37 provinces and 2 wilayas*; Agadir, Al Hoceima, Azilal, Beni Mellal, Ben Slimane, Boulemane, Casablanca*, Chaouen, El Jadida, El Kelaa des Sraghna, Er Rachidia, Essaouira, Fes, Figuig, Guelmim, Ifrane, Kenitra, Khemisset, Khenifra, Khouribga, Laayoune, Larache, Marrakech, Meknes, Nador, Ouarzazate, Oujda, Rabat-Sale*, Safi, Settat, Sidi Kacem, Tanger, Tan-Tan, Taounate, Taroudannt, Tata, Taza, Tetouan, Tiznit
note : three additional provinces of Ad Dakhla (Oued Eddahab), Boujdour, and Es Smara as well as parts of Tan-Tan and Laayoune fall within Moroccan-claimed Western Sahara; decentralization/regionalization law passed by the legislature in March 1997 created many new provinces/regions; specific details and scope of the reorganization not yet available

Independence: 2 March 1956 (from France)

National holiday: Throne Day (accession of King MOHAMED VI to the throne), 30 July (1999)

Constitution: 10 March 1972, revised 4 September 1992, amended (to create bicameral legislature) September 1996

Legal system: based on Islamic law and French and Spanish civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Chamber of Supreme Court

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: King MOHAMED VI (since 23 July 1999)
head of government: Prime Minister Abderrahmane YOUSSOUFI (since 14 March 1998)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the monarch
elections: none; the king is a hereditary monarch; prime minister appointed by the king

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of an upper house or Chamber of Counselors (270 seats; members elected indirectly by local councils, professional organizations, and labor syndicates for nine-year terms; one-third of the members are renewed every three years) and a lower house or Chamber of Representatives (325 seats; members elected by popular vote for five-year terms)
elections: Chamber of Counselors - last held 15 September 2000 (next to be held NA 2002); Chamber of Representatives - last held 14 November 1997 (next to be held NA November 2002)
election results: Chamber of Counselors - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - NA; Chamber of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - USFP 57, UC 50, RNI 46, MP 40, MDS 32, IP 32, MNP 19, PND 10, MPCD 9, PPS 9, FFD 9, PSD 5, OADP 4, PA 2, PDI 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges are appointed on the recommendation of the Supreme Council of the Judiciary, presided over by the king

Political parties and leaders: Action Party or PA [Muhammad EL IDRISSI]; Avant Garde Social Democratic Party or PADS [Abderrahman BENAMROU]; Citizen's Forces [Abderrahman LAJOUJI]; Constitutional Union or CU [Mohamed ABIED (interim)]; Democratic Forces Front or FFD [Thami EL KHYARI]; Democratic Socialist Party or PSD [Eissa OUARDIGHI]; Democratic Party for Independence or PDI [Abd al Wahid AL MAASH]; Democratic Union or UD [Bouazza IKKEN]; Istiqlal Party or IP [Abbas El FASSI]; Moroccan Liberal Party [Mohamed ZIANE]; National Democratic Party or PND [Abdallah KADIRI]; National Popular Movement or MNP [Mahjoubi AHERDANE]; National Rally of Independents or RNI [Ahmed OSMAN]; Organization of Democratic and Popular Action or OADP [Mohamed Ben Said AIT IDDER]; Party of Justice and Development or PJD (note - formerly the Popular Constitutional and Democratic Movement or MPCD) [Dr. Abdelkarim KHATIB]; Party of the National Unionist Congress [Abdelmajid BOUZOUBAA]; Party of Progress and Socialism or PPS [Ismail ALAOUI]; Party of Reform and Development [Abderrahman EL KOUHEN]; Popular Movement or MP [Mohamed LAENSER]; Social Democratic Movement or MDS [Mahmoud AARSHANE]; Socialist Union of Popular Forces or USFP [Abderrahman EL-YOUSSOUFI]

International organization participation: ABEDA, ACCT (associate), AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, AMU, CCC, EBRD, ECA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO (pending member), ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC, OSCE (partner), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Abdullah MAAROUFI
chancery: 1601 21st Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone : [1] (202) 462-7979 through 7982
FAX: [1] (202) 265-0161
consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Ms. Margaret TUTWILER (since 11 Jul. 2001)
embassy : 2 Avenue de Marrakech, Rabat
mailing address: PSC 74, Box 003, APO AE 09718
telephone: [212] (7) 76 22 65
FAX: [212] (7) 76 56 61
consulate(s) general: Casablanca

Flag description: red with a green pentacle (five-pointed, linear star) known as Solomon's seal in the center of the flag; green is the traditional color of Islam


Economy - overview:Morocco faces the problems typical of developing countries - restraining government spending, reducing constraints on private activity and foreign trade, and achieving sustainable economic growth. Following structural adjustment programs supported by the IMF, World Bank, and the Paris Club, the dirham is now fully convertible for current account transactions, and reforms of the financial sector have been implemented. Droughts depressed activity in the key agricultural sector and contributed to a stagnant economy in 1999 and 2000. During that time, however, Morocco reported large foreign exchange inflows from the sale of a mobile telephone license and partial privatization of the state-owned telecommunications company. Favorable rainfall in 2001 led to a growth of 5%. Formidable long-term challenges include: servicing the external debt; preparing the economy for freer trade with the EU; and improving education and attracting foreign investment to boost living standards and job prospects for Morocco's youth

GDP: purchasing power parity - $112 billion (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 5% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $3,700 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 15%
industry: 33%
services: 52% (2000 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 1% (2001 est.)

Labor force:
total:11 million (1999)
by occupation: agriculture 50%, services 35%, industry 15% (1999 est.)

Unemployment rate: 23% (1999 est.)

revenues: 23% (1999 est.)
expenditures: $14.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $2.1 billion (2001 est.)

Industries: phosphate rock mining and processing, food processing, leather goods, textiles, construction, tourism

Industrial production growth rate: 0.5% (1999 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 3.79 million kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 14.243 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 14.346 billion kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products: barley, wheat, citrus, wine, vegetables, olives; livestock

total value: $8.2 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
commodities : food and beverages 30%, semiprocessed goods 23%, consumer goods 21%, phosphates 17% (1995 est.)
partners : France 26%, Spain 10%, UK 8%, Italy 6%, Germany 5%, India 5%, US 5% (2000)

total value: $12.4 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
commodities: capital goods 24%, semiprocessed goods 22%, raw materials 16%, fuel and lubricants 16%, food and beverages 13%, consumer goods 9% (1995 est.)
partners: France 25%, Spain 11%, Germany 6%, Italy 6%, UK 5%, US 5% (2000)

Debt - external: $19 billion (2001 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: $565.6 million (1995)

Currency: 1 Moroccan dirham (MAD) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates:Moroccan dirhams per US dollar - 11.584 (January 2002), 11.303 (2001), 10.626 (2000), 9.804 (1999), 9.604 (1998), 9.527 (1997)

Fiscal year: calendar year


Telephones: 1.391 million (1998)

Telephone system: modern system with all important capabilities; however density is low with only 4.6 main lines available for each 100 persons
domestic:good system composed of open-wire lines, cables, and microwave radio relay links; Internet available but expensive; principal switching centers are Casablanca and Rabat; national network nearly 100% digital using fiber-optic links; improved rural service employs microwave radio relay
international : 7 submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 Arabsat; microwave radio relay to Gibraltar, Spain, and Western Sahara; coaxial cable and microwave radio relay to Algeria; participant in Medarabtel; fiber-optic cable link from Agadir to Algeria and Tunisia (1998)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 27, FM 25, shortwave 6 (1998)

Radios: 6.64 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 35 (plus 66 repeaters) (1995)

Televisions:3.1 million (1997)


total: 1,907 km
standard gauge: 1,907 km 1.435-m gauge (1003 km electrified; 246 km double track) (2001)

total : 57,847 km
paved: 30,254 km (including 327 km of expressways)
unpaved: 30,075 km (1998)

Pipelines: crude oil 362 km; petroleum products 491 km (abandoned); natural gas 241 km

Ports and harbors: Agadir, El Jadida, Casablanca, El Jorf Lasfar, Kenitra, Mohammedia, Nador, Rabat, Safi, Tangier; also Spanish-controlled Ceuta and Melilla

Merchant marine:
total: 41 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 227,364 GRT/277,306 DWT
ships by type: cargo 10, chemical tanker 6, container 6, petroleum tanker 2, refrigerated cargo 8, roll on/roll off 8, short-sea passenger 1

Airports: 67 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:
total : 26
over 3,047 m: 9
2,438 to 3,047 m: 6
1,524 to 2,437 m:9
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m : 1 (2001)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 41
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 10
914 to 1,523 m : 19
under 914 m : 11 (2001)

Heliports: 1(2001)


Military branches: Royal Armed Forces (includes Army, Navy, Air Force), Gendarmerie, Auxiliary Forces

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age (2002 est.)

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 8,393,772 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 5,289,283 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 348,380 (2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $1.4 billion (FY99/00)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 4% (FY99/00)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: claims and administers Western Sahara, but sovereignty is unresolved and the UN is attempting to hold a referendum on the issue; the UN-administered cease-fire has been in effect since September 1991; Spain controls five places of sovereignty (plazas de soberania) on and off the coast of Morocco - the coastal enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla which Morocco contests as well as the islands of Penon de Alhucemas, Penon de Velez de la Gomera, and Islas Chafarinas

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of hashish; trafficking on the increase for both domestic and international drug markets; shipments of hashish mostly directed to Western Europe; transit point for cocaine from South America destined for Western Europe