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Countries > Mongolia Mongolia Flag

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Capital: Ulaanbaatar
Population: 2,600,000
Click to Listen Play the National Anthem
Mongolia Map


Location: Northern Asia, between China and Russia

Geographic coordinates: 46 00 N, 105 00 E

Map references: Asia

total : 1.565 million sq km
land: 1.565 million sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Alaska

Land boundaries:
total: 8,114 km
border countries: China 4,673 km, Russia 3,441 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: desert; continental (large daily and seasonal temperature ranges)

Terrain: vast semidesert and desert plains; mountains in west and southwest; Gobi Desert in southeast

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Hoh Nuur 518 m
highest point: Tavan Bogd Uul 4,374 m

Natural resources: oil, coal, copper, molybdenum, tungsten, phosphates, tin, nickel, zinc, wolfram, fluorspar, gold

Land use:
arable land : 1%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 80%
forests and woodland: 9%
other: 10% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:840 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards: dust storms can occur in the spring; grassland fires

Environment - current issues: limited natural fresh water resources; policies of the former communist regime promoting rapid urbanization and industrial growth have raised concerns about their negative effects on the environment; the burning of soft coal and the concentration of factories in Ulaanbaatar have severely polluted the air; deforestation, overgrazing, the converting of virgin land to agricultural production have increased soil erosion from wind and rain; desertification

Environment - international agreements:
party to : Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: landlocked; strategic location between China and Russia


Population: 2,694,432 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 32% (male 438,176; female 422,960)
15-64 years: 64.1% (male 864,033; female 865,172)
65 years and over : 3.9% (male 45,080; female 59,011) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.48% (2002 est.)

Birth rate: 21.8 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate: 7.01 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years : 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate:51.97 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 64.62 years
male: 62.47 years
female : 66.87 years (2002 est.)

Total fertility rate:2.37 children born/woman (2002 est.)

noun : Mongolian(s)
adjective: Mongolian

Ethnic groups:Mongol (predominantly Khalkha) 85%, Turkic (of which Kazakh is the largest group) 7%, Tungusic 4.6%, other (including Chinese and Russian) 3.4% (1998)

Religions:Tibetan Buddhist Lamaism 96%, Muslim (primarily in the southwest), Shamanism, and Christian 4% (1998)

Languages: Khalkha Mongol 90%, Turkic, Russian (1999)

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 97.8%
male : 98%
female: 97.5% (2000)


Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form : Mongolia
local long form: none
local short form : Mongol Uls
former: Outer Mongolia

Data code: MG

Government type: republic

National capital: Ulaanbaatar

Administrative divisions: 21 provinces (aymguud, singular - aymag) and 1 municipality* (hot); Arhangay, Bayanhongor, Bayan-Olgiy, Bulgan, Darhan Uul, Dornod, Dornogovi, Dundgovi, Dzavhan, Govi-Altay, Govi-Sumber, Hentiy, Hovd, Hovsgol, Omnogovi, Orhon, Ovorhangay, Selenge, Suhbaatar, Tov, Ulaanbaatar*, Uvs

Independence: 11 July 1921 (from China)

National holiday: Independence Day/Revolution Day, 11 July (1921)

Constitution: 12 February 1992

Legal system: blend of Russian, Chinese, and Turkish systems of law; no constitutional provision for judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state : President Natsagiyn BAGABANDI (since 20 June 1997)
head of government: Prime Minister Nambaryn ENKHBAYAR (since 26 July 2000)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the State Great Hural
elections: president nominated by parties in the State Great Hural and elected by popular vote for a four-year term; election last held 20 May 2001 (next to be held NA May 2005); following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition is usually elected prime minister by the State Great Hural; election last held 2 July 2000 (next to be held NA 2004)
election results:Natsagiyn BAGABANDI reelected president; percent of vote - Natsagiyn BAGABANDI (MPRP) 58.13%, Radnaasumbereliyn GONCHIGDORJ (DP) 36.58%, Luvsandamba DASHNYAM (CWP) 3.54%, other 1.75%; Nambaryn ENKHBAYAR elected prime minister by a vote in the State Great Hural of 68 to 3

Legislative branch: unicameral State Great Hural (76 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 2 July 2000 (next to be held NA July 2004)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - MPRP 72, other 4

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, serves as appeals court for people's and provincial courts, but to date rarely overturns verdicts of lower courts, judges are nominated by the General Council of Courts for approval by the Great Hural

Political parties and leaders: Citizens' Will Party or CWP (also called Civil Will Party or Civil Courage Party) [Sanjaasurengyn OYUN]; Democratic Party or DP [D. DORLIGJAN]; Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party or MPRP [Nambaryn ENKHBAYAR]; Mongolian New Socialist Democratic Party or MNSDP [B. ERDENEBAT]; Mongolian Republican Party or MRP [B. JARGALSAIHAN] note: the MPRP is the ruling party

International organization participation: AsDB, CCC, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, NAM (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Jalbuugiyn CHOINHOR
chancery: 2833 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 333-7117
FAX : [1] (202) 298-9227
consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador John DINGER
embassy: inner north side of the Big Ring, just west of the Selbe Gol, Ulaanbaatar
mailing address: c/o American Embassy Beijing, Micro Region 11, Big Ring Road; PSC 461, Box 300, FPO AP 96521-0002
telephone : [976] (1) 329095, 329606
FAX: [976] (1) 320776

Flag description: three equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), blue, and red, centered on the hoist-side red band in yellow is the national emblem ("soyombo" - a columnar arrangement of abstract and geometric representation for fire, sun, moon, earth, water, and the yin-yang symbol)


Economy - overview: Economic activity traditionally has been based on agriculture and breeding of livestock. Mongolia also has extensive mineral deposits: copper, coal, molybdenum, tin, tungsten, and gold account for a large part of industrial production. Soviet assistance, at its height one-third of GDP, disappeared almost overnight in 1990-91, at the time of the dismantlement of the USSR. Mongolia was driven into deep recession, prolonged by the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party's (MPRP) reluctance to undertake serious economic reform. The Democratic Coalition (DC) government has embraced free-market economics, easing price controls, liberalizing domestic and international trade, and attempting to restructure the banking system and the energy sector. Major domestic privatization programs were undertaken, as well as the fostering of foreign investment through international tender of the oil distribution company, a leading cashmere company, and banks. Reform was held back by the ex-Communist MPRP opposition and by the political instability brought about through four successive governments under the DC. Economic growth picked up in 1997-99 after stalling in 1996 due to a series of natural disasters and declines in world prices of copper and cashmere. In August and September 1999, the economy suffered from a temporary Russian ban on exports of oil and oil products, and Mongolia remains vulnerable in this sector. Mongolia joined the World Trade Organization (WTrO) in 1997. The international donor community pledged over $300 million per year at the last Consultative Group Meeting, held in Ulaanbaatar in June 1999. The MPRP government, elected in July 2000, is anxious to improve the investment climate; it must also deal with a heavy burden of external debt. Falling prices for Mongolia's mainly primary sector exports, widespread opposition to privatization, and adverse effects of weather on agriculture in early 2000 and 2001 restrained real GDP growth in 2000-01.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $4.7 billion (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 2.4% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,770 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 32%
industry: 30%
services: 38% (2000 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index:11.8% (2000 est.)

Labor force:
total: 1.4 million (2000)
by occupation : primarily herding/agricultural

Unemployment rate: 20% (2000)

revenues: $262 million
expenditures :$328 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)

Industries: copper, construction materials, mining (particularly coal); food and beverage, processing of animal products

Industrial production growth rate: 2.4% (2000 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 900,000 kW (1995)

Electricity - production: 2.77 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 2.732 billion kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products: wheat, barley, potatoes, forage crops; sheep, goats, cattle, camels, horses

total value: $466.1 million (f.o.b., 2000)
commodities : copper, livestock, animal products, cashmere, wool, hides, fluorspar, other nonferrous metals
partners: China 59%, US 20%, Russia 10%, Japan 2% (2000)

total value: $614.5 million (c.i.f., 2000)
commodities : machinery and equipment, fuels, food products, industrial consumer goods, chemicals, building materials, sugar, tea
partners: Russia 34%, China 21%, Japan 12%, South Korea 9%, US 4% (2000)

Debt - external: $760 million (2000 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: $208.7 million (1999 est.)

Currency: 1 tughrik (MNT) = 100 mongos

Exchange rates: togrogs/tugriks per US dollar - 1,101.29 (December 2001), 1,097.70 (2001), 1,076.67 (2000), 1,072.37 (1999), 840.83 (1998), 789.99 (1997)

Fiscal year: calendar year


Telephones: 104,100 (1999)

Telephone system:very low density: about 3.5 telephones for each thousand persons
domestic: NA
international: satellite earth station - 1 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean Region)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 7, FM 9, shortwave 4 (2001)

Radios: 155,900 (1999)

Television broadcast stations: 4 (plus 18 provincial repeaters and many low powered repeaters) (1999)

Televisions: 168,800 (1999)


total: 1,815 km
broad gauge: 1,815 km 1.524-m gauge (2001)

total : 3,387 km
paved: 1,563 km
unpaved: 1,824 km
note: there are also 45,862 km of rural roads that consist of rough, unimproved, cross-country tracks (2000)

Waterways: 400 km (1999)

Ports and harbors: none

Airports: 34 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 8
2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
under 914 m : 1 (2001)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 26
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 10
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m : 5 (2001)


Military branches:Mongolian Armed Forces (includes General Purpose Forces, Air and Air Defense Forces, Civil Defense Troops); note - Border Troops are under Ministry of Justice and Home Affairs in peacetime

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age (2002 est.)

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 772,619 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 501,493 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 30,230 (2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $24.3 million (FY01)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2.5% (FY01)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

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