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Countries > Mali Mali Flag
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Capital: Bamako
Population: 9,788,904
Click to Listen Play the National Anthem
Mali Map

Geography

Location: Western Africa, southwest of Algeria

Geographic coordinates: 17 00 N, 4 00 W

Map references: Africa

Area:
total : 1.24 million sq km
land: 1.22 million sq km
water: 20,000 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly less than twice the size of Texas

Land boundaries:
total : 7,243 km
border countries: Algeria 1,376 km, Burkina Faso 1,000 km, Guinea 858 km, Cote d'Ivoire 532 km, Mauritania 2,237 km, Niger 821 km, Senegal 419 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: subtropical to arid; hot and dry February to June; rainy, humid, and mild June to November; cool and dry November to February

Terrain: mostly flat to rolling northern plains covered by sand; savanna in south, rugged hills in northeast

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Senegal River 23 m
highest point: Hombori Tondo 1,155 m

Natural resources: gold, phosphates, kaolin, salt, limestone, uranium, bauxite, iron ore, manganese, tin, and copper deposits are known but not exploited

Land use:
arable land: 2%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures : 25%
forests and woodland: 6%
other: 67% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 780 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: hot, dust-laden harmattan haze common during dry seasons; recurring droughts

Environment - current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; inadequate supplies of potable water; poaching

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified : Nuclear Test Ban

Geography - note: landlocked

People

Population: 11,340,480 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 47.2% (male 2,687,998; female 2,658,605)
15-64 years: 49.8% (male 2,698,789; female 2,950,276)
65 years and over : 3% (male 160,604; female 184,208) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.97% (2002 est.)

Birth rate: 548.37 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate: 18.32 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.35 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years : 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.91 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.87 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 119.63 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 47.39 years
male: 46.18 years
female : 48.64 years (2002 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.73 children born/woman (2002 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Malian(s)
adjective: Malian

Ethnic groups: Mande 50% (Bambara, Malinke, Sarakole), Peul 17%, Voltaic 12%, Songhai 6%, Tuareg and Moor 10%, other 5%

Religions: Muslim 90%, indigenous beliefs 9%, Christian 1%

Languages: French (official), Bambara 80%, numerous African languages

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 38%
male: 45%
female:31% (1998 est.)

Government

Country name:
conventional long form : Republic of Mali
conventional short form: Mali
local long form: Republique de Mali
local short form: Mali
former: French Sudan

Data code: ML

Government type: republic

National capital: Bamako

Administrative divisions: 8 regions (regions, singular - region); Gao, Kayes, Kidal, Koulikoro, Mopti, Segou, Sikasso, Tombouctou

Independence: 22 September 1960 (from France)

National holiday:Independence Day, 22 September (1960)

Constitution: adopted 12 January 1992

Legal system: based on French civil law system and customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Court (which was formally established on 9 March 1994); has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Amadou Toumani TOURE (since 8 June 2002)
head of government: Prime Minister Modibo KEITA (since 18 March 2002)
cabinet : Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (two-term limit); election last held 12 May 2002 (next to be held NA May 2007); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Amadou Toumani TOURE elected president; percent of vote - Amadou Toumani TOURE 64.4%, Soumaila CISSE 35.6%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (116 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 20 July and 3 August 1997 (next to be held NA July 2002); note - much of the opposition boycotted the election
election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - ADEMA 95, RPM 35, PARENA 8, CDS 4, UDD 3, PDP 2

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

Political parties and leaders: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - ADEMA 95, RPM 35, PARENA 8, CDS 4, UDD 3, PDP 2

Political pressure groups and leaders: Patriotic Movement of the Ghanda Koye or MPGK; United Movement and Fronts of Azawad or MFUA

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNAVEM III, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WADB, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Cheick Oumar DIARRAH
chancery : 2130 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 332-2249, 939-8950
FAX: [1] (202) 332-6603

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Michael E. RANNEBERGER
embassy: Rue Rochester NY and Rue Mohamed V, Bamako
mailing address: B. P. 34, Bamako
telephone: [223] 22 54 70
FAX : [223] 22 37 12

Flag description: three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), yellow, and red; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia

Economy

Economy - overview:Mali is among the poorest countries in the world, with 65% of its land area desert or semidesert. Economic activity is largely confined to the riverine area irrigated by the Niger. About 10% of the population is nomadic and some 70% of the labor force is engaged in farming and fishing. Industrial activity is concentrated on processing farm commodities. Mali is heavily dependent on foreign aid and vulnerable to fluctuations in world prices for cotton, its main export. In 1997, the government continued its successful implementation of an IMF-recommended structural adjustment program that is helping the economy grow, diversify, and attract foreign investment. Mali's adherence to economic reform and the 50% devaluation of the African franc in January 1994 have pushed up economic growth to a sturdy 5% average in 1996-2000. In 2001, GDP decreased by 1.2% mainly due to a 50% drop in cotton production in 2000-01.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $9.2 billion (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: -1.2% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $840 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture:45%
industry: 17%
services:38% (2001 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 4.5% (2001 est.)

Labor force:
total: 3.93 million (2001 est.)
by occupation: agriculture and fishing 80% (2001 est.)

Unemployment rate: 14.6% urban areas; 5.3% rural areas (2001 est.)

Budget:
revenues : $764 million
expenditures: $828 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (2002 est.)

Industries: minor local consumer goods production and food processing; construction; phosphate and gold mining

Industrial production growth rate: 1% (1994)

Electricity - capacity: 84,100 kW (1990)

Electricity - production: 235 million kWh (1995)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 429.66 million kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products: cotton, millet, rice, corn, vegetables, peanuts; cattle, sheep, goats

Exports:
total value: $575 million (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
commodities: cotton 43%, gold 40%, livestock (2001 est.)
partners: mostly franc zone and Western Europe

Imports:
total value : $600 million (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
commodities: machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, construction materials, petroleum, textiles
partners: Cote d'Ivoire 21%, France 12.4%, Senegal 4%, Germany 4%, Benelux (2000)

Debt - external: $3.3 billion (2000)

Economic aid:
recipient: $596.4 million (2001)

Currency: 1 Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XOF) = 100 centimes ); note - responsible authority is the Central Bank of the West African States

Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar - 742.79 (January 2002), 733.04 (2001), 711.98 (2000), 615.70 (1999), 589.95 (1998), 583.67 (1997);
note: rom 1 January 1999, the XOF is pegged to the euro at a rate of 655.957 XOF per euro

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 45,000 (2000)

Telephone system: domestic system unreliable but improving; provides only minimal service
domestic: nnetwork consists of microwave radio relay, open wire, and radiotelephone communications stations; expansion of microwave radio relay in progress
international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 28, shortwave 1
note: the shortwave station in Bamako has seven frequencies and five transmitters and relays broadcasts for China Radio International (2001)

Radios: 570,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (plus repeaters) (2001)

Televisions: 45,000 (1997)

Transportation

Railways:
total: 729 km; (linked to Senegal's rail system through Kayes)
narrow gauge: 729 km 1.000-m gauge

Highways:
total: 15,100 km
paved : 1,827 km
unpaved: 13,273 km (1996)

Waterways: 1,815 km navigable

Ports and harbors: Koulikoro

Airports: 27 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 7
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m:1
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2001)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 11
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 7
under 914 m :9 (2001)

Military

Military branches: Army, Air Force, Gendarmerie, Republican Guard, National Guard, National Police (Surete Nationale)

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 2,369,578 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 1,358,646 (2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:$50 million (FY01)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2% (FY01)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none