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Countries > Lebanon Lebanon Flag
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Capital: Beirut
Population: 4,000,000
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Lebanon Map

Introduction

Current issues:Lebanon has made progress toward rebuilding its political institutions since 1991 and the end of the devastating 16-year civil war. Under the Ta'if Accord - the blueprint for national reconciliation - the Lebanese have established a more equitable political system, particularly by giving Muslims a greater say in the political process while institutionalizing sectarian divisions in the government. Since the end of the war, the Lebanese have conducted several successful elections, most of the militias have been weakened or disbanded, and the Lebanese Armed Forces (LAF) have extended central government authority over about two-thirds of the country. Hizballah, the radical Shi'a party, retains its weapons. Syria maintains about 20,000 troops in Lebanon based mainly in Beirut, North Lebanon, and the Bekaa Valley. Syria's troop deployment was legitimized by the Arab League during Lebanon's civil war and in the Ta'if Accord. Damascus justifies its continued military presence in Lebanon by citing Beirut's requests and the failure of the Lebanese Government to implement all of the constitutional reforms in the Ta'if Accord. Israel's withdrawal from its security zone in southern Lebanon in May of 2000, however, has emboldened some Lebanese Christians and Druze to demand that Syria withdraw its forces as well.

Geography

Location: Middle East, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Israel and Syria

Geographic coordinates: 33 50 N, 35 50 E

Map references: Middle East

Area:
total: 10,400 sq km
land: 10,230 sq km
water : 170 sq km

Area - comparative: about 0.7 times the size of Connecticut

Land boundaries:
total : 454 km
border countries: Israel 79 km, Syria 375 km

Coastline: 225 km

Maritime claims:
territorial sea : 12 nm

Climate: Mediterranean; mild to cool, wet winters with hot, dry summers; Lebanon mountains experience heavy winter snows

Terrain: narrow coastal plain; Al Biqa' (Bekaa Valley) separates Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon Mountains

Elevation extremes:
lowest point : Mediterranean Sea 0 m
highest point: Jabal al Makmal 3,087 m

Natural resources: limestone, iron ore, salt, water-surplus state in a water-deficit region

Land use:
arable land : 18%
permanent crops:12%
permanent pastures: 1%
forests and woodland: 8%
other: 61% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land: 1,200 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards: dust storms, sandstorms

Environment - current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; air pollution in Beirut from vehicular traffic and the burning of industrial wastes; pollution of coastal waters from raw sewage and oil spills

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation

Geography - note: Nahr al Litani only major river in Near East not crossing an international boundary; rugged terrain historically helped isolate, protect, and develop numerous factional groups based on religion, clan, and ethnicity

People

Population: 3,677,780 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 27.3% (male 511,902; female 491,804)
15-64 years: 65.9% (male 1,157,688; female 1,267,106)
65 years and over: 6.8% (male 113,341; female 135,939) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.36% (2002 est.)

Birth rate:19.96 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate:6.35 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years:0.91 male(s)/female
65 years and over :0.83 male(s)/female
total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 27.39 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population :71.79 years
male: 69.38 years
female :74.32 years (2002 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.02 children born/woman (2002 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Lebanese (singular and plural)
adjective: Lebanese

Ethnic groups: Arab 95%, Armenian 4%, other 1%

Religions: Muslim 70% (including Shi'a, Sunni, Druze, Isma'ilite, Alawite or Nusayri), Christian 30% (including Orthodox Christian, Catholic, Protestant), Jewish NEGL%

Languages: Arabic (official), French, English, Armenian

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 86.4%
male: 90.8%
female: 82.2% (1997 est.)

Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Lebanese Republic
conventional short form: Lebanon
local long form : Al Jumhuriyah al Lubnaniyah
local short form: Lubnan

Data code: LE

Government type: republic

National capital: Beirut

Administrative divisions: 6 governorates (mohafazat, singular - mohafazah); Beyrouth, Beqaa, Liban-Nord, Liban-Sud, Mont-Liban, Nabatiye

Independence: 22 November 1943 (from League of Nations mandate under French administration)

National holiday: Independence Day, 22 November (1943)

Constitution: 23 May 1926, amended a number of times

Legal system: mixture of Ottoman law, canon law, Napoleonic code, and civil law; no judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 21 years of age; compulsory for all males; authorized for women at age 21 with elementary education

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Emile LAHUD (since 24 November 1998)
head of government : PPrime Minister Rafiq HARIRI (since 23 October 2000); Deputy Prime Minister Issam FARES (since 23 October 2000)
cabinet: Cabinet chosen by the prime minister in consultation with the members of the National Assembly; the current Cabinet was formed in 1996
elections: president elected by the National Assembly for a six-year term; election last held 15 October 1998 (next to be held NA 2004); prime minister and deputy prime minister appointed by the president in consultation with the National Assembly; by custom, the president is a Maronite Christian, the prime minister is a Sunni Muslim, and the speaker of the legislature is a Shi'a Muslim
election results:Emile LAHUD elected president; National Assembly vote - 118 votes in favor, 0 against, 10 abstentions

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Majlis Alnuwab (Arabic) or Assemblee Nationale (French) (128 seats; members elected by popular vote on the basis of sectarian proportional representation to serve four-year terms)
elections:last held 27 August and 3 September 2000 (next to be held NA 2004)
election results:percent of vote by party - Muslim 57% (of which Sunni 25%, Sh'ite 25%, Druze 6%, Alawite less than 1%), Christian 43% (of which Maronite 23%); seats by party - Muslim 64 (of which Sunni 27, Sh'ite 27, Druze 8, Alawite 2), Christian 64 (of which Maronite 34)

Judicial branch: four Courts of Cassation (three courts for civil and commercial cases and one court for criminal cases); Constitutional Council (called for in Ta'if Accord - rules on constitutionality of laws); Supreme Council (hears charges against the president and prime minister as needed)

Political parties and leaders:political party activity is organized along largely sectarian lines; numerous political groupings exist, consisting of individual political figures and followers motivated by religious, clan, and economic considerations

International organization participation: ABEDA, ACCT, AFESD, AL, AMF, CCC, ESCWA, FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OIC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNRWA, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission : Ambassador Dr. Farid ABBOUD
chancery: 2560 28th Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 939-6300
FAX: [1] (202) 939-6324
consulate(s) general: Detroit, New York, and Los Angeles

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission : Ambassador Vincent Martin BATTLE (since 11 Sep. 2001)
embassy: Antelias, Beirut
mailing address: P. O. Box 70-840, Beirut; PSC 815, Box 2, FPO AE 09836-0002
telephone: [961] (1) 402200, 403300, 406650, 406651, 426183, 417774, 889926
FAX : [961] (1) 407112

Flag description: three horizontal bands of red (top), white (double width), and red with a green and brown cedar tree centered in the white band

Economy

Economy - overview: The 1975-91 civil war seriously damaged Lebanon's economic infrastructure, cut national output by half, and all but ended Lebanon's position as a Middle Eastern entrepot and banking hub. Peace enabled the central government to restore control in Beirut, begin collecting taxes, and regain access to key port and government facilities. Economic recovery was helped by a financially sound banking system and resilient small- and medium-scale manufacturers. Family remittances, banking services, manufactured and farm exports, and international aid provided the main sources of foreign exchange. Lebanon's economy made impressive gains since the launch in 1993 of "Horizon 2000," the government's $20 billion reconstruction program. Real GDP grew 8% in 1994, 7% in 1995, 4% in 1996 and in 1997 but slowed to 2% in 1998, -1% in 1999, and -0.5% in 2000. Growth recovered slightly in 2001 to 1%. During the 1990s annual inflation fell to almost 0% from more than 100%. Lebanon has rebuilt much of its war-torn physical and financial infrastructure. The government nonetheless faces serious challenges in the economic arena. It has funded reconstruction by borrowing heavily - mostly from domestic banks. The re-installed HARIRI government has failed to rein in the ballooning national debt. Without large-scale international aid and rapid privatization of state-owned enterprises, markets may force a currency devaluation and debt default in 2002.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $18.8 billion (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 1% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $5,200 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 12%
industry: 21%
services: 67% (2000)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 0.5% (2001 est.)

Labor force:
total: 1.5 million (2001 est.) plus as many as 1 million foreign workers
by occupation: services 60%, industry 28%, agriculture 12% (1990 est.)

Unemployment rate:18% (1997 est.)

Budget:
revenues:$4.6 billion
expenditures:$8.9 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2001 est.)

Industries: banking; food processing; textiles, jewelry; cement, oil refining, chemicals, metal fabricating, wood products

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - capacity: 1.22 million kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 7.95 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 8.643 billion kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products: citrus, vegetables, potatoes, olives, tobacco, hemp (hashish); sheep, goats

Exports:
total value : $700 million (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
commodities: paper and paper products 26%, food stuffs 16%, textiles and textile products 10%, jewelry 8%, metals and metal products 8%, electrical equipment and products 8%, chemical products 6%, transport vehicles 4% (1995)
partners: Saudi Arabia 11%, UAE 11%, Switzerland 7%, US 7%, France 5%, Iraq 4%, Jordan 4%, Kuwait 4%, Syria 4% (2000)

Imports:
total value: $6.6 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
commodities : machinery and transport equipment 28%, foodstuffs 20%, consumer goods 19%, chemicals 9%, textiles 5%, metals 5%, fuels 3% (1995)
partners: Italy 11%, France 8%, Germany 8%, US 7%, Switzerland 6%, China 5%, Syria 5%, UK 4% (2000)

Debt - external: $8.4 billion (2001 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: $3.5 billion (pledges 1997-2001)

Currency: 1 Lebanese pound (LBP )= 100 piasters

Exchange rates:Lebanese pounds per US dollar - 1,507.5 (January 2002), 1,507.5 (2001), 1,507.5 (2000), 1,507.8 (1999), 1,516.1 (1998), 1,539.5 (1997)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 700,000 (1999)

Telephone system: telecommunications system severely damaged by civil war; rebuilding well underway
domestic: primarily microwave radio relay and cable
international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Atlantic Ocean) (erratic operations); coaxial cable to Syria; microwave radio relay to Syria but inoperable beyond Syria to Jordan; 3 submarine coaxial cables

Radio broadcast stations: AM 20, FM 22, shortwave 4 (1998)

Radios: 2.85 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 15 (plus 5 repeaters) (1995)

Televisions: 1.18 million (1997)

Transportation

Railways:
total: 399 km
standard gauge : 317 km 1.435-m
note: entire system is unusable because of damage in civil war (2001)
narrow gauge: 82 km 1.050-m

Highways:
total:7,300 km
paved:6,350 km
unpaved:950 km (1999 est.)

Pipelines: crude oil 72 km (none in operation)

Ports and harbors: Al Batrun, Al Mina, An Naqurah, Antilyas, Az Zahrani, Beirut, Jubayl, Juniyah, Shikka, Sidon, Tripoli, Tyre

Merchant marine:
total: 67 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 320,770 GRT/468,293 DWT
ships by type: bulk 8, cargo 38, chemical tanker 1, combination bulk 1, container 4, liquefied gas 1, livestock carrier 7, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 3, vehicle carrier 3
note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: France 1, Greece 10, Netherlands 4, Panama 1, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 2, Spain 1, Syria 2 (2002 est.)

Airports: 8 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 5
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m : 1
under 914 m: 1 (2001)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m:1 (2001)

Military

Military branches: Lebanese Armed Forces (LAF; includes Army, Navy, and Air Force)

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49 : 1,003,174 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 618,129 (2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $343 million (FY99/00)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 4.8% (FY99/00)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Israeli troops in southern Lebanon since June 1982; Syrian troops in northern, central, and eastern Lebanon since October 1976; Lebanese Government claims Shab'a Farms area of Israeli-occupied Golan Heights

Illicit drugs: small illicit producer of hashish and heroin for the international drug trade; hashish production is shipped to Western Europe, the Middle East, and North and South America; a key locus of cocaine processing and trafficking; a Lebanese/Syrian eradication campaign started in the early 1990s has practically eliminated the opium and cannabis crops