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Countries > Hong Kong Hong Kong Flag
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Capital: Hong Kong
Population: 6,400,000
Hong Kong Map


Location: Eastern Asia, bordering the South China Sea and China

Geographic coordinates: 22 15 N, 114 10 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

total: 1,092 sq km
land: 1,042 sq km
water: 50 sq km

Area - comparative: six times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
total: 30 km
border countries: China 30 km

Coastline: 733 km

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: tropical monsoon; cool and humid in winter, hot and rainy from spring through summer, warm and sunny in fall

Terrain: hilly to mountainous with steep slopes; lowlands in north

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: South China Sea 0 m
highest point: Tai Mo Shan 958 m

Natural resources: outstanding deepwater harbor, feldspar

Land use:
arable land: 5%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 1%
forests and woodland : 22%
other: 70% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land: 20 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards: occasional typhoons

Environment - current issues: air and water pollution from rapid urbanization

Environment - international agreements:
party to: NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography - note: more than 200 islands


Population: 7,303,334 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 17.5% (male 679,311; female 599,811)
15-64 years: 71.6% (male 2,587,509; female 2,641,418)
65 years and over: 10.9% (male 364,864; female 430,421) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.26% (2002 est.)

Birth rate: 10.92 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate: 6.11 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate: 7.76 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.13 male(s)/female
15-64 years : 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 5.73 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 79.8 years
male: 77.1 years
female: 82.69 years (2002 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.3 children born/woman (2002 est.)

noun: Chinese
adjective: Chinese

Ethnic groups: Chinese 95%, other 5%

Religions: eclectic mixture of local religions 90%, Christian 10%

Languages: Chinese (Cantonese), English

definition: age 15 and over has ever attended school
total population : 92.2%
male: 96%
female: 88.2% (1996 est.)


Country name:
conventional long form : none
conventional short form: Hong Kong
abbreviation : HK

Data code: HK

Dependency status: dependent territory of the UK; note - scheduled to revert to China on 1 July 1997

Government type: NA

National capital: Victoria

Administrative divisions: none (special administrative region of China)

Independence: none (special administrative region of China)

National holiday: Liberation Day, 29 August (1945)

Constitution: Basic Law approved in March 1990 by China's National People's Congress is Hong Kong's "mini-constitution"

Legal system: based on English common law

Suffrage: direct election 18 years of age; universal for permanent residents living in the territory of Hong Kong for the past seven years; indirect election limited to about 100,000 professionals of electoral college and functional constituencies

Executive branch:
chief of state : President of China JIANG Zemin (since 27 March 1993)
head of government: Chief Executive TUNG Chee-hwa (since 1 July 1997)
cabinet: Executive Council appointed by the governor
elections: NA

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Council or LEGCO (60 seats; 30 indirectly elected by functional constituencies, 24 elected by popular vote, and 6 elected by an 800-member election committee; members serve four-year terms)
elections:last held 10 September 2000 (next to be held NA 2004)
election results:percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - Democratic Party 12, Democratic Alliance for the Betterment of Hong Kong 10, Liberal Party 7, Frontier Party 5, Hong Kong Progressive Alliance 4, New Century Forum 2, Hong Kong Association for Democracy and People's Livelihood 1, independents 19

Judicial branch: The Court of Final Appeal in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region

Political parties and leaders:Association for Democracy and People's Livelihood [Frederick FUNG Kin-kee, chairman]; Citizens Party [Alex CHAN Kai-chung]; Democratic Alliance for the Betterment of Hong Kong [Jasper TSANG Yok-sing, chairman]; Democratic Party [Martin LEE Chu-ming, chairman]; Frontier Party [Emily LAU Wai-hing, chairwoman]; Hong Kong Association for Democracy and People's Livelihood [leader NA]; Hong Kong Progressive Alliance [Ambrose LAU Hon-chuen]; Liberal Party [James TIEN Pei-chun, chairman]; New Century Forum [NQ Ching-fai, chairman] note: political blocs include: pro-democracy - Association for Democracy and People's Livelihood, Citizens Party, Democratic Party, Frontier Party; pro-Beijing - Democratic Alliance for the Betterment of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Progressive Alliance, Liberal Party, New Century Forum

Political pressure groups and leaders:Chinese General Chamber of Commerce (pro-China); Chinese Manufacturers' Association of Hong Kong; Confederation of Trade Unions (pro-democracy) [LAU Chin-shek, president; LEE Cheuk-yan, general secretary]; Federation of Hong Kong Industries; Federation of Trade Unions (pro-China) [LEE Chark-tim, president]; Hong Kong Alliance in Support of the Patriotic Democratic Movement in China [Szeto WAH, chairman]; Hong Kong and Kowloon Trade Union Council (pro-Taiwan); Hong Kong General Chamber of Commerce; Hong Kong Professional Teachers' Union [CHEUNG Man-kwong, president]; Liberal Democratic Federation [HU Fa-kuang, chairman]

International organization participation: APEC, AsDB, BIS (pending member), CCC, ESCAP (associate), ICFTU, IMO (associate), Interpol (subbureau), IOC, ISO (correspondent), WCL, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (special administrative region of China)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Consul General Michael KLOSSON
consulate(s) general: 26 Garden Road, Hong Kong
mailing address: PSC 464, Box 30, FPO AP 96522-0002
telephone: [852] 2523-9011
FAX : [852] 2845-1598

Flag description:red with a stylized, white, five-petal bauhinia flower in the center


Economy - overview:Hong Kong has a bustling free market economy highly dependent on international trade. Natural resources are limited, and food and raw materials must be imported. Indeed, imports and exports, including reexports, each exceed GDP in dollar value. Even before Hong Kong reverted to Chinese administration on 1 July 1997 it had extensive trade and investment ties with China. Per capita GDP compares with the level in the four big economies of Western Europe. GDP growth averaged a strong 5% in 1989-97. The widespread Asian economic difficulties in 1998 hit this trade-dependent economy quite hard, with GDP down 5%. The economy, with growth of 10% in 2000, recovered rapidly from the Asian financial crisis. The recent global downturn has badly hurt Hong Kong's exports and GDP growth is estimated to be 0% in 2001. Private sector analysts project 2002 GDP growth to be 1.8%.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $180 billion (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 0% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $25,000 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture : 0.1%
industry: 14.3%
services: 85.6% (1999 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: -1.6% (2001 est.)

Labor force:
total: 3.44 million (2001 est.)
by occupation: wholesale and retail trade, restaurants, and hotels 31%, financing, insurance, and real estate 13%, community and social services 11%, manufacturing 7%, transport and communications 6%, construction 2%, other 30% (2001 est.)

Unemployment rate: 5.2% (2001 est.)

revenues: $22.9 billion
expenditures:$24.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $465 million (FY00/01)

Industries: textiles, clothing, tourism, electronics, plastics, toys, watches, clocks

Industrial production growth rate: -9% (2001 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 10.32 million kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 29.449 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 35,401.57 million kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products:fresh vegetables; poultry, fish, pork

total value : $191 billion (including reexports; f.o.b., 2001 est.)
commodities: clothing, textiles, footwear, electrical appliances, watches and clocks, toys, plastics, precious stones
partners: China 34%, US 23%, Japan 6%, Germany 4%, UK 4%, Taiwan 3%, Singapore 2% (2000)

total value: $203 billion (2001 est.)
commodities: foodstuffs, transport equipment, raw materials, semimanufactures, petroleum; a large share is reexported
partners: China 43%, Japan 12%, Taiwan 8%, US 7%, South Korea 5%, Singapore 3% (2000)

Debt - external: $58.8 billion (2001 est.)

Economic aid: $NA

Currency: 1 Hong Kong dollar (HK$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Hong Kong dollars per US dollar - 7.798 (January 2002), 7.7994 (2001), 7.7918 (2000), 7.7589 (1999), 7.7462 (1998), 7.7425 (1997); note - the Hong Kong dollar is linked to the US dollar at a rate of about 7.8 Hong Kong dollars per US dollar

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March


Telephones: 3.839 million (1999)

Telephone system: modern facilities provide excellent domestic and international services
domestic: microwave radio relay links and extensive fiber-optic network
international: satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Pacific Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean); coaxial cable to Guangzhou, China; access to 5 international submarine cables providing connections to ASEAN member nations, Japan, Taiwan, Australia, Middle East, and Western Europe

Radio broadcast stations: AM 7, FM 13, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 4.45 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 44 (plus two repeaters) (1997)

Televisions: 1.84 million (1997)


total : 34 km
standard gauge: 34 km 1.435-m gauge (electrified and double-tracked)
note:connects to China railway system at Hong Kong-China border (2001)

total: 1,831 km
paved : 1,831 km
unpaved: 0 km (1997)

Ports and harbors: Hong Kong

Merchant marine:
total: 433 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 13,539,257 GRT/22,682,757 DWT
ships by type:barge carrier 1, bulk 264, cargo 38, chemical tanker 10, combination bulk 2, container 73, liquefied gas 8, multi-functional large-load carrier 1, petroleum tanker 32, refrigerated cargo 1, short-sea passenger 1, vehicle carrier 2
note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Belgium 5, Belize 1, British Virgin Islands 1, China 115, Denmark 2, Germany 19, Greece 2, India 8, Japan 8, Liberia 1, Malaysia 7, Norway 1, Panama 2, Philippines 5, Singapore 7, South Korea 2, Taiwan 1, United Kingdom 27, Virgin Islands (UK) 1 (2002 est.)

Airports: 3 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:
total : 3
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2001)

Heliports: 2 (2001)


Military branches: no regular indigenous military forces; Hong Kong garrison of China's People's Liberation Army (PLA) including elements of the PLA Ground Forces, PLA Navy, and PLA Air Force; these forces are under the direct leadership of the Central Military Commission in Beijing and under administrative control of the adjacent Guangzhou Military Region

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age (2002 est.)

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 2,028,208 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 1,523,378 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 47,139 (2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA%

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of China

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs:strenuous law enforcement efforts, but faces serious challenges in controlling transit of heroin and methamphetamine to regional and world markets; money laundering center; rising indigenous use of synthetic drugs, especially among young people