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Countries > Georgia Georgia Flag

Languages   5 languages are spoken in Georgia. We have 549 products available for those languages.

Capital: Tbilisi
Population: 5,250,000
Click to Listen Play the National Anthem
Georgia Map

Current issues: Beset by ethnic and civil strife since independence in 1991, Georgia began to stabilize in 1994. Separatist conflicts in Abkhazia and South Ossetia have been dormant since spring 1994, although political settlements remain elusive. Russian peacekeepers are deployed in both regions and a UN Observer Mission is operating in Abkhazia. As a result of these conflicts, Georgia still has about 250,000 internally displaced people. In 1995, Georgia adopted a new constitution and conducted generally free and fair nationwide presidential and parliamentary elections. In 1996, the government focused its attention to implementing an ambitious economic reform program and professionalizing its parliament. Violence and organized crime were sharply curtailed in 1995 and 1996, but corruption remains rife.


Location: Southwestern Asia, bordering the Black Sea, between Turkey and Russia

Geographic coordinates: 42 00 N, 43 30 E

Map references: Commonwealth of Independent States

total: 69,700 sq km
land : 69,700 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than South Carolina

Land boundaries:
total: 1,461 km
border countries: Armenia 164 km, Azerbaijan 322 km, Russia 723 km, Turkey 252 km

Coastline: 310 km

Maritime claims: NA

Climate: warm and pleasant; Mediterranean-like on Black Sea coast

Terrain: largely mountainous with Great Caucasus Mountains in the north and Lesser Caucasus Mountains in the south; Kolkhida Lowland opens to the Black Sea in the west; Mtkvari River Basin in the east; good soils in river valley flood plains, foothills of Kolkhida Lowland

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Black Sea 0 m
highest point: Mt'a Mqinvartsveri (Gora Kazbek) 5,048 m

Natural resources: forests, hydropower, manganese deposits, iron ore, copper, minor coal and oil deposits; coastal climate and soils allow for important tea and citrus growth

Land use:
arable land : 11%
permanent crops:4%
other: 85% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land: 4,700 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards: earthquakes

Environment - current issues: air pollution, particularly in Rust'avi; heavy pollution of Mtkvari River and the Black Sea; inadequate supplies of potable water; soil pollution from toxic chemicals

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
signed, but not ratified: Desertification


Population: 4,960,951 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 19% (male 481,669; female 462,966)
15-64 years : 68.2% (male 1,631,351; female 1,752,230)
65 years and over: 12.8% (male 246,663; female 386,072) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate:-0.55% (2002 est.)

Birth rate: 11.48 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate: 14.61 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate: -2.39 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years : 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
65 years and over:0.64 male(s)/female
total population: 0.91 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 51.81 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 64.67 years
male: 61.19 years
female : 68.32 years (2002 est.)

Total fertility rate:1.48 children born/woman (2002 est.)

noun: Georgian(s)
adjective: Georgian

Ethnic groups: Georgian 70.1%, Armenian 8.1%, Russian 6.3%, Azeri 5.7%, Ossetian 3%, Abkhaz 1.8%, other 5%

Religions: Georgian Orthodox 65%, Muslim 11%, Russian Orthodox 10%, Armenian Apostolic 8%, unknown 6%

Languages: Georgian 71% (official), Russian 9%, Armenian 7%, Azeri 6%, other 7%
note: Abkhaz is the official language in Abkhazia

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99%
male: 100%
female: 98% (1989 est.)


Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Georgia
local long form: none
local short form : Sak'art'velo
former: Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic

Data code: GG

Government type: republic

National capital: T'bilisi

Administrative divisions: 9 regions, (mkharebi, singular - mkhare), 9 cities* (k'alak'ebi, singular - k'alak'i), and 2 autonomous republics** (avtomnoy respubliki, singular - avtom respublika); Abkhazia or Ap'khazet'is Avtonomiuri Respublika** (Sokhumi), Ajaria or Acharis Avtonomiuri Respublika** (Bat'umi), Chiat'ura*, Gori*, Guria, Imereti, Kakheti, K'ut'aisi*, Kvemo Kartli, Mtskheta-Mtianeti, P'ot'i*, Racha-Lechkhumi and Kvemo Svaneti, Rust'avi*, Samegrelo and Zemo Svaneti, Samtskhe-Javakheti, Shida Kartli, T'bilisi*, Tqibuli*, Tsqaltubo*, Zugdidi*
note:the administrative centers of the 2 autonomous republics are shown in parentheses

Independence: 9 April 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: Independence Day, 26 May (1991)

Constitution: adopted 17 October 1995

Legal system: based on civil law system

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state : President Eduard Amvrosiyevich SHEVARDNADZE (previously elected chairman of the Government Council 10 March 1992; Council has since been disbanded; previously elected chairman of Parliament 11 October 1992; president since 26 November 1995); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Eduard Amvrosiyevich SHEVARDNADZE (previously elected chairman of the Government Council 10 March 1992; Council has since been disbanded; previously elected chairman of Parliament 11 October 1992; president since 26 November 1995); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 9 April 2000 (next to be held NA 2005)
election results:Eduard SHEVARDNADZE reelected president; percent of vote - Eduard SHEVARDNADZE 80%

Legislative branch: unicameral Supreme Council (commonly referred to as Parliament) or Umaghiesi Sabcho (235 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 31 October and 14 November 1999 (next to be held NA 2003)
election results :percent of vote by party - CUG 41.85%, AGUR 25.65%, IWSG 7.8%, all other parties received less than 7% each; seats by party - CUG 130, AGUR 58, IWSG 15, Abkhaz (government-in-exile) deputies 12, independents 17, other 3

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (judges elected by the Supreme Council on the president's recommendation); Constitutional Court

Political parties and leaders: Citizen's Union of Georgia or CUG [Zarab ZHVANIA]; Georgian People's Front [Nodar NATADZE]; Georgian United Communist Party or UCPG [Panteleimon GIORGADZE]; Greens [Giorgi GACHECHILADZE]; Industry Will Save Georgia or IWSG [Georgi TOPADZE]; Labor Party [Salva NATELASHVILI]; National Democratic Party or NDP [Irina SARISHVILI-CHANTURIA]; New National Movement [Mikheil SAAKASHVILI]; New Rightists [Levaii GACHECHILADZE]; Republican Party [David BERDZENISHVILI]; "Revival" Union Party or AGUR [Alsan ABASHIDZE]; Socialist Party or SPG [Irakli MINDELI]; Traditionalists [Akaki ASATIANI]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Georgian independent deputies from Abkhazia (Abkhaz faction in Georgian Parliament); separatist elements in the breakaway region of Abkhazia; supporters of the late ousted President Zviad GAMSAKHURDYA remain a source of opposition

International organization participation: BSEC, CCC, CE (guest), CIS, EBRD, ECE, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, NACC, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Levan MIKELADZE
chancery: (temporary) Suite 424, 1511 K Street NW, Washington, DC 20005
telephone: [1] (202) 393-5959
FAX : [1] (202) 393-4537

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Richard MILES
embassy: #25 Antoneli Street, T'bilisi 380026
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone : 995-32-989-967 or 995-32-933-803 (operator assisted)
FAX: tie-line FAX 997-0200; 933-759 or 938-951

Flag description: maroon field with small rectangle in upper hoist side corner; rectangle divided horizontally with black on top, white below


Economy - overview: Georgia's main economic activities include the cultivation of agricultural products such as citrus fruits, tea, hazelnuts, and grapes; mining of manganese and copper; and output of a small industrial sector producing alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages, metals, machinery, and chemicals. The country imports the bulk of its energy needs, including natural gas and oil products. Its only sizable internal energy resource is hydropower. Despite the severe damage the economy has suffered due to civil strife, Georgia, with the help of the IMF and World Bank, has made substantial economic gains since 1995, achieving positive GDP growth and curtailing inflation. However, the Georgian government suffers from limited resources due to a chronic failure to collect tax revenues. Georgia also suffers from energy shortages; it privatized the T'bilisi distribution network in 1998, but collection rates are low, making the venture unprofitable. The country is pinning its hopes for long-term recovery on its role as a transit state for pipelines and trade. The start of construction on the Baku-T'bilisi-Ceyhan pipeline in summer 2002 will bring much-needed investment and job opportunities to the country.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $15.5 billion (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 8.4% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $3,100 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture : 25%
industry: 20%
services: 55% (2001 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 4.6% (2001 est.)

Labor force:
total: 2.1 million (2001 est.)
by occupation: industry 20%, agriculture 40%, services 40% (1999 est.)

Unemployment rate: 17% (2001 est.)

revenues: $499 million
expenditures: $554 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (2001 est.)

Industries: steel, aircraft, machine tools, foundry equipment, electric locomotives, tower cranes, electric welding equipment, machinery for food preparation and meat packing, electric motors, process control equipment, trucks, tractors, textiles, shoes, chemicals, wood products, wine

Industrial production growth rate: 3% (2000)

Electricity - capacity: 4.56 million kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 7.404 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 7.886 billion kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products: citrus, grapes, tea, vegetables, potatoes; small livestock sector

total value: $450 million (2001 est.)
commodities: citrus fruits, tea, wine, other agricultural products; diverse types of machinery; ferrous and nonferrous metals; textiles; chemicals; fuel re-exports
partners : Turkey 22.3%, Russia 20.6%, Germany 10.4%, Azerbaijan 6.3%, Armenia 4%, US 2.2% (2000)

total value: $723 million (2001 est.)
commodities: fuel, grain and other foods, machinery and parts, transport equipment
partners: EU 23.8%, Turkey 16%, Russia 12.8%, US 10.1%, Germany 7.9% (2000)

Debt - external: $1.7 billion (2001)

Economic aid:
recipient: $212.7 million (1995)

Currency: lari introduced September 1995 replacing the coupon - lari (GEL)

Exchange rates: 2.1888 (January 2002), 2.0730 (2001), 1.9762 (2000), 2.0245 (1999), 1.3898 (1998), 1.2975 (1997)

Fiscal year: calendar year


Telephones: 620,000 (1997)

Telephone system:
domestic: local - T'bilisi and K'ut'aisi have cellular telephone networks; urban telephone density is about 20 per 100 people; rural telephone density is about 4 per 100 people; intercity facilities include a fiber-optic line between T'bilisi and K'ut'aisi; nationwide pager service is available
international: Georgia and Russia are working on a fiber-optic line between P'ot'i and Sochi (Russia); present international service is available by microwave, landline, and satellite through the Moscow switch; international electronic mail and telex service are available

Radio broadcast stations: AM 7, FM 12, shortwave 4 (1998)

Radios: 3.02 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 12 (plus repeaters) (1998)

Televisions:2.57 million (1997)


total: 1,583 km in common carrier service; does not include industrial lines
broad gauge: 1,583 km 1.520-m gauge (1993)
narrow gauge:37km 0.912-m gauge (2000 est.)

total: 33,900 km
paved: 29,500 km (includes some all-weather gravel-surfaced roads)
unpaved : 4,400 km (these roads are made of unstabilized earth and are difficult to negotiate in wet weather) (1990) Pipelines: crude oil 370 km; refined products 300 km; natural gas 440 km (1992)

Ports and harbors: Bat'umi, P'ot'i, Sokhumi

Merchant marine:
total:64 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 210,620 GRT/288,565 DWT
ships by type :bulk 5, cargo 46, container 5, petroleum tanker 7, roll on/roll off 1
Note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Belize 1, Bulgaria 1, Cyprus 1, Ecuador 1, Egypt 4, Gibraltar 1, Greece 5, Jordan 1, Latvia 1, Liberia 1, Malta 1, Panama 9, Romania 8, Russia 4, Saint Kitts and Nevis 3, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 3, Saudi Arabia 2, Syria 5, Turkey 2, Ukraine 7, United Arab Emirates 11, United Kingdom 1, United States 1 (2002 est.)

Airports: 31 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 16
over 3,047 m : 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 8
1,524 to 2,437 m :2
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 3 (2001)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 15
over 3,047 m : 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m:4
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 6 (2001) Transportation - note: transportation network is in poor condition and disrupted by ethnic conflict, criminal activities, and fuel shortages; network lacks maintenance and repair


Military branches: Ground Forces, Navy, Air Force, Air Defense Forces, National Guard, Republic Security Forces (internal and border troops)

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 1,300,259 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males : 1,027,407 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males:41,561 (2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $23 million (FY00)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 0.59% (FY00)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international:Chechen and other insurgents transit Pankisi Gorge to infiltrate Akhmeti region; boundary with Russia has been largely delimited, but not demarcated; several small, strategic segments remain in dispute

Illicit drugs: limited cultivation of cannabis and opium poppy, mostly for domestic consumption; used as transshipment point for opiates to Western Europe