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Countries > Finland Finland Flag
Products   One product specific to Finland is available in one category.


Languages   4 languages are spoken in Finland. We have 188 products available for those languages.


Capital: Helsinki
Population: 5,100,000
Click to Listen Play the National Anthem
Finland Map

Geography

Location: Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Sweden and Russia

Geographic coordinates: 64 00 N, 26 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
total: 337,030 sq km
land: 305,470 sq km
water: 31,560 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Montana

Land boundaries:
total : 2,628 km
border countries: Norway 729 km, Sweden 586 km, Russia 1,313 km

Coastline: 1,126 km (excludes islands and coastal indentations)

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 6 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive fishing zone: 12 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm (in the Gulf of Finland - 3 nm)

Climate: cold temperate; potentially subarctic, but comparatively mild because of moderating influence of the North Atlantic Current, Baltic Sea, and more than 60,000 lakes

Terrain: mostly low, flat to rolling plains interspersed with lakes and low hills

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m
highest point: Haltiatunturi 1,328 m

Natural resources: timber, copper, zinc, iron ore, silver

Land use:
arable land: 7%
permanent crops: 0%
other : 93% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land: 640 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: air pollution from manufacturing and power plants contributing to acid rain; water pollution from industrial wastes, agricultural chemicals; habitat loss threatens wildlife populations

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified : Air Pollution-Sulphur 94

Geography - note: long boundary with Russia; Helsinki is northernmost national capital on European continent; population concentrated on small southwestern coastal plain

People

Population: 5,183,545 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years : 17.9% (male 471,920; female 454,082)
15-64 years: 66.9% (male 1,752,493; female 1,717,544)
65 years and over: 15.2% (male 306,216; female 481,290) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate:0.14% (2002 est.)

Birth rate: 10.6 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate:9.78 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.62 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth:1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years : 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.64 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 3.76 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 77.75 years
male: 74.1 years
female: 81.52 years (2002 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.7 children born/woman (2002 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Finn(s)
adjective: Finnish

Ethnic groups: Finn 93%, Swede 6%, Lapp 0.11%, Gypsy 0.12%, Tatar 0.02%

Religions: Evangelical Lutheran 89%, Greek Orthodox 1%, none 9%, other 1%

Languages: Finnish 93.5% (official), Swedish 6.3% (official), small Lapp- and Russian-speaking minorities

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 100% (1980 est.)
male: NA%
female: NA%

Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Finland
conventional short form: Finland
local long form : Suomen Tasavalta
local short form: Suomi

Data code: FI

Government type: republic

National capital: Helsinki

Administrative divisions: 6 provinces (laanit, singular - laani); Aland, Etela-Suomen Laani, Ita-Suomen Laani, Lansi-Suomen Laani, Lappi, Oulun Laani

Independence: 6 December 1917 (from Russia)

National holiday: Independence Day, 6 December (1917)

Constitution: 17 July 1919

Legal system: civil law system based on Swedish law; Supreme Court may request legislation interpreting or modifying laws; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Tarja HALONEN (since 1 March 2000)
head of government : Prime Minister Paavo LIPPONEN (since 13 April 1995) and Deputy Prime Minister Ville ITALA (since 31 August 2001)
cabinet:Council of State or Valtioneuvosto appointed by the president, responsible to Parliament
elections:president elected by popular vote for a six-year term; election last held 6 February 2000 (next to be held NA February 2006); prime minister and deputy prime minister appointed from the majority party by the president after parliamentary elections
election results: Tarja HALONEN elected president; percent of vote - Tarja HALONEN (SDP) 51.6%, Esko AHO (Kesk) 48.4%

Legislative branch:unicameral Parliament or Eduskunta (200 seats; members are elected by popular vote on a proportional basis to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 21 March 1999 (next to be held NA March 2003)
election results : percent of vote by party - SDP 22.9%, Kesk 22.5%, Kok 21.0%, Leftist Alliance (Communist) 10.9%, SFP 5.1%, Green League 7.2%, SKL 4.2%; seats by party - SDP 51, Kesk 48, Kok 46, Leftist Alliance (Communist) 20, SFP 11, Green League 11, SKL 10, other 3

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Korkein Oikeus, judges appointed by the president

Political parties and leaders: Center Party or Kesk [Esko AHO]; Finnish Christian Democratic Party or SKL [C. P. Bjarne KALLIS]; Green League [Osmo SOININVAARA]; Leftist Alliance (Communist) composed of People's Democratic League and Democratic Alternative [Suvi-Anne SIIMES]; National Coalition (conservative) Party or Kok [Ville ITALA]; Social Democratic Party or SDP [Paavo LIPPONEN]; Swedish People's Party or SFP [Jan-Erik ENESTAM]; True Finns [Timo SOINI]

International organization participation: AfDB, AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CCC, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, G- 9, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM (guest), NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNIKOM, UNMEE, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOGIP, UNMOP, UNMOVIC, UNTSO, UPU, WEU (observer), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission : Ambassador Jukka Robert VALTASAARI
chancery: 3301 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 298-5800
FAX: [1] (202) 298-6030
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles and New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Bonnie McELVEEN-HUNTER
embassy: Itainen Puistotie 14A, FIN-00140, Helsinki
mailing address: APO AE 09723
telephone: [358] (9) 171931
FAX : [358] (9) 174681

Flag description: white with a blue cross that extends to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag)

Economy

Economy - overview:Finland has a highly industrialized, largely free-market economy, with per capita output roughly that of the UK, France, Germany, and Italy. Its key economic sector is manufacturing - principally the wood, metals, engineering, telecommunications, and electronics industries. Trade is important, with exports equaling almost one-third of GDP. Except for timber and several minerals, Finland depends on imports of raw materials, energy, and some components for manufactured goods. Because of the climate, agricultural development is limited to maintaining self-sufficiency in basic products. Forestry, an important export earner, provides a secondary occupation for the rural population. Rapidly increasing integration with Western Europe - Finland was one of the 11 countries joining the euro monetary system (EMU) on 1 January 1999 - will dominate the economic picture over the next several years. Growth in 2001 was held back by the global slowdown and will likely be anemic again in 2002.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $133.5 billion (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 0.6% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $25,800 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture :3%
industry:28%
services: 69% (2000)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 2.6% (2001 est.)

Labor force:
total: 2.6 million (2000 est.)
by occupation: public services 32%, industry 22%, commerce 14%, finance, insurance, and business services 10%, agriculture and forestry 8%, transport and communications 8%, construction 6%

Unemployment rate: 9.4% (2001 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $36.1 billion
expenditures: $31 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)

Industries: metal products, shipbuilding, pulp and paper, copper refining, foodstuffs, chemicals, textiles, clothing

Industrial production growth rate: 5.1% (2001)

Electricity - capacity: 14.14 million kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 75.356 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 81.961 billion kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products: cereals, sugar beets, potatoes; dairy cattle; annual fish catch about 160,000 metric tons

Exports:
total value:$40.1 billion (f.o.b., 2001)
commodities: paper and pulp, machinery, chemicals, metals, timber
partners: Germany 12.5%, Sweden 9.3%, UK 9.1%, US 7.4%, France 5.2%, Italy 4.4% (2000)

Imports:
total value :$31.2 billion (f.o.b., 2001)
commodities: foodstuffs, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, transport equipment, iron and steel, machinery, textile yarn and fabrics, fodder grains
partners :Germany 14.2%, Sweden 10.3%, Russia 9.4%, US 7.1%, UK 6.4%, Japan 5.3% (2000)

Debt - external: $30 billion (December 1993)

Economic aid:
donor : ODA, $379 million (1997)

Currency: markka (FIM); euro (EUR) Exchange rates: euros per US dollar - 1.1324 (January 2002), 1.1175 (2001), 1.0854 (2000), 0.9386 (1999); markkaa per US dollar - 5.3441 (1998), 5.1914 (1997)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 2.861 million (1997)

Telephone system: modern system with excellent service
domestic: cable, microwave radio relay, and an extensive cellular net provide domestic needs
international : 1 submarine cable; satellite earth stations - access to Intelsat transmission service via a Swedish satellite earth station, 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions); note - Finland shares the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic countries (Denmark, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 186, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios: 7.7 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 130 (plus 385 repeaters) (1995)

Televisions: 3.2 million (1997)

Transportation

Railways:
total: 5,865 km
broad gauge: 5,865 km 1.524-m gauge (2,234 km electrified; 480 km double- or multiple-track) (2000 est.)

Highways:
total: 77,831 km
paved: 49,789 km (including 444 km of expressways)
unpaved: 28,042 km (1999)

Waterways: 6,675 km total (including Saimaa Canal); 3,700 km suitable for steamers

Pipelines: natural gas 580 km

Ports and harbors: Hamina, Helsinki, Kokkola, Kotka, Loviisa, Oulu, Pori, Rauma, Turku, Uusikaupunki, Varkaus

Merchant marine:
total : 98 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,172,404 GRT/1,144,139 DWT
ships by type:bulk 9, cargo 26, chemical tanker 5, passenger 1, petroleum tanker 11, roll on/roll off 36, short-sea passenger 10
note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Germany 1, Sweden 1 (2002 est.)

Airports: 160 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 73
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 26
1,524 to 2,437 m:10
914 to 1,523 m: 22
under 914 m : 12 (2001)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total:87
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 82 (2001)

Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Frontier Guard (includes Sea Guard)

Military manpower - military age: 17 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49 : 1,240,762 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males:1,024,379 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males:33,883 (2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $1.8 billion (FY98/99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2% (FY98/99)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: minor transshipment point for Latin American cocaine for the West European market