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Countries > Egypt Egypt Flag
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Capital: Cairo
Population: 57,690,000
Click to Listen Play the National Anthem
Egypt Map

Geography

Location: Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Libya and the Gaza Strip

Geographic coordinates: 27 00 N, 30 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 1,001,450 sq km
land : 995,450 sq km
water: 6,000 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly more than three times the size of New Mexico

Land boundaries:
total: 2,689 km
border countries: Gaza Strip 11 km, Israel 255 km, Libya 1,150 km, Sudan 1,273 km

Coastline: 2,450 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: desert; hot, dry summers with moderate winters

Terrain: vast desert plateau interrupted by Nile valley and delta

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Qattara Depression -133 m
highest point: Mount Catherine 2,629 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, manganese, limestone, gypsum, talc, asbestos, lead, zinc

Land use:
arable land: 3%
permanent crops: 0%
other : 97% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land: 33,000 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards: periodic droughts; frequent earthquakes, flash floods, landslides; hot, driving windstorm called khamsin occurs in spring; dust storms, sandstorms

Environment - current issues: agricultural land being lost to urbanization and windblown sands; increasing soil salinization below Aswan High Dam; desertification; oil pollution threatening coral reefs, beaches, and marine habitats; other water pollution from agricultural pesticides, raw sewage, and industrial effluents; very limited natural fresh water resources away from the Nile which is the only perennial water source; rapid growth in population overstraining natural resources

Environment - international agreements:
party to : Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: controls Sinai Peninsula, only land bridge between Africa and remainder of Eastern Hemisphere; controls Suez Canal, shortest sea link between Indian Ocean and Mediterranean Sea; size, and juxtaposition to Israel, establish its major role in Middle Eastern geopolitics

People

Population:70,712,345 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 33.96% (male 12,292,185; female 11,721,469)
15-64 years: 62.18% (male 22,190,637; female 21,775,504)
65 years and over:3.86% (male 1,191,091; female 1,541,459) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.66% (2002 est.)

Birth rate: 24.41 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate: 7.58 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate:-0.24 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years:1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years : 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female
total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate:58.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 64.05 years
male: 61.96 years
female: 66.24 years (2002 est.)

Total fertility rate:2.99 children born/woman (2002 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Egyptian(s)
adjective: Egyptian

Ethnic groups: Eastern Hamitic stock (Egyptians, Bedouins, and Berbers) 99%, Greek, Nubian, Armenian, other European (primarily Italian and French) 1%

Religions: Muslim (mostly Sunni) 94%, Coptic Christian and other 6%

Languages: Arabic (official), English and French widely understood by educated classes

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 51.4%
male: 63.6%
female: 38.8% (1995 est.)

Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Arab Republic of Egypt
conventional short form: Egypt
local long form: Jumhuriyat Misr al-Arabiyah
local short form: none
former : United Arab Republic (with Syria)

Data code: EG

Government type: republic

National capital: Cairo

Administrative divisions: 26 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah); Ad Daqahliyah, Al Bahr al Ahmar, Al Buhayrah, Al Fayyum, Al Gharbiyah, Al Iskandariyah, Al Isma'iliyah, Al Jizah, Al Minufiyah, Al Minya, Al Qahirah, Al Qalyubiyah, Al Wadi al Jadid, Ash Sharqiyah, As Suways, Aswan, Asyut, Bani Suwayf, Bur Sa'id, Dumyat, Janub Sina', Kafr ash Shaykh, Matruh, Qina, Shamal Sina', Suhaj

Independence: 28 February 1922 (from UK)

National holiday: Anniversary of the Revolution, 23 July (1952)

Constitution: 11 September 1971

Legal system: based on English common law, Islamic law, and Napoleonic codes; judicial review by Supreme Court and Council of State (oversees validity of administrative decisions); accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Mohammed Hosni MUBARAK (since 14 October 1981)
head of government: Prime Minister Atef Mohammed ABEID (since 5 October 1999)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections : president nominated by the People's Assembly for a six-year term, the nomination must then be validated by a national, popular referendum; national referendum last held 26 September 1999 (next to be held NA October 2005); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: national referendum validated President MUBARAK's nomination by the People's Assembly to a fourth term

Legislative branch: bicameral system consists of the People's Assembly or Majlis al-Sha'b (454 seats; 444 elected by popular vote, 10 appointed by the president; members serve five-year terms) and the Advisory Council or Majlis al-Shura - which functions only in a consultative role (264 seats; 176 elected by popular vote, 88 appointed by the president; members serve NA-year terms)
elections: People's Assembly - three-phase voting - last held 19 October, 29 October, 8 November 2000 (next to be held NA November 2005); Advisory Council - last held 7 June 1995 (next to be held NA)
election results: People's Assembly - percent of vote by party - NDP 88%, independents 8%, opposition 4%; seats by party - NDP 398, NWP 7, Tagammu 6, Nasserists 2, LSP 1, independents 38, undecided 2; Advisory Council - percent of vote by party - NDP 99%, independents 1%; seats by party - NA

Judicial branch: Supreme Constitutional Court

Political parties and leaders: Nasserist Arab Democratic Party or Nasserists [Dia' al-din DAWUD]; National Democratic Party or NDP [President Mohammed Hosni MUBARAK] - governing party; National Progressive Unionist Grouping or Tagammu [Khalid MUHI AL-DIN]; New Wafd Party or NWP [No'man GOMA]; Socialist Liberal Party or LSP [leader NA]
note: formation of political parties must be approved by government

Political pressure groups and leaders: despite a constitutional ban against religious-based parties, the technically illegal Muslim Brotherhood constitutes MUBARAK's potentially most significant political opposition; MUBARAK tolerated limited political activity by the Brotherhood for his first two terms, but moved more aggressively since then to block its influence; civic society groups are sanctioned, but constrained in practical terms; trade unions and professional associations are officially sanctioned

International organization participation: ABEDA, ACC, ACCT (associate), AfDB, AFESD, AG (observer), AL, AMF, BSEC (observer), CAEU, CCC, EBRD, ECA, ESCWA, FAO, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, NAM, OAPEC, OAS (observer), OAU, OIC, OSCE (partner), PCA, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNAVEM III, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNMIBH, UNMOP, UNOMIG, UNOMIL, UNPREDEP, UNRWA, UNTAES, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador M. Nabil FAHMY
chancery: 3521 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 895-5400
FAX: [1] (202) 244-4319, 5131
consulate(s) general : Chicago, Houston, New York, and San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador C. David WELCH (since 3 Aug. 2001)
embassy: (North Gate) 8, Kamel El-Din Salah Street, Garden City, Cairo
mailing address: Unit 64900, APO AE 09839-4900
telephone : [20] (2) 3557371
FAX: [20] (2) 3572000
branch office: Alexandria

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black with the national emblem (a shield superimposed on a golden eagle facing the hoist side above a scroll bearing the name of the country in Arabic) centered in the white band; similar to the flag of Yemen, which has a plain white band; also similar to the flag of Syria that has two green stars and to the flag of Iraq, which has three green stars (plus an Arabic inscription) in a horizontal line centered in the white band

Economy

Economy - overview: Egypt improved its macroeconomic performance throughout most of the last decade by following IMF advice on fiscal, monetary, and structural reform policies. As a result, Cairo managed to tame inflation, slash budget deficits, and attract more foreign investment. In the past three years, however, the pace of reform has slackened, and excessive spending on national infrastructure projects has widened budget deficits again. Lower foreign exchange earnings since 1998 resulted in pressure on the Egyptian pound and periodic dollar shortages. Monetary pressures have increased since 11 September 2001 because of declines in tourism, Suez canal tolls, and exports, and Cairo has devalued the pound several times in the past year. The development of a gas export market is a major bright spot for future growth prospects.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $258 billion (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:2.5% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $3,700 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture:14%
industry : 30%
services: 56% (2001)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 2.3% (2001)

Labor force:
total:20.6 million (2001 est.)
by occupation: agriculture 29%, industry 22%, services 49% (2000 est.)

Unemployment rate: 12% (2001 est.)

Budget:
revenues:$21.5 billion
expenditures: $26.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $5.9 billion (2001)

Industries: textiles, food processing, tourism, chemicals, petroleum, construction, cement, metals

Industrial production growth rate: 1.8% (2001 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 13.04 million kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 69.592 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 64.721 billion kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products: cotton, rice, corn, wheat, beans, fruits, vegetables; cattle, water buffalo, sheep, goats; annual fish catch about 140,000 metric tons

Exports:
total value : $7.1 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
commodities: crude oil and petroleum products, cotton yarn, raw cotton, textiles, metal products, chemicals
partners:EU 43% (Italy 18%, Germany 4%, UK 3.2%), US 15%, Middle East 11%, Asian countries 9%, (2000)

Imports:
total value: $164 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
commodities: machinery and equipment, foods, fertilizers, wood products, durable consumer goods, capital goods
partners: EU 36% (Germany 8%, Italy 8%, France 6%), US 18%, Asian countries 13%, , Middle East 6% (2000)

Debt - external: $29 billion (2001 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $2.25 billion (1999)

Currency: 1 Egyptian pound (£E) = 100 piasters

Exchange rates: Egyptian pounds per US dollar - market rate - 4.5000 (January 2002), 4.4900 (2001), 3.6900 (2000), 3.4050 (1999), 3.3880 (1998), 3.3880 (1997)

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

Communications

Telephones:3,971,500 (December 1998)

Telephone system: large system; underwent extensive upgrading during 1990s and is reasonably modern; Internet access and cellular service are available
domestic: principal centers at Alexandria, Cairo, Al Mansurah, Ismailia, Suez, and Tanta are connected by coaxial cable and microwave radio relay
international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean), 1 Arabsat, and 1 Inmarsat; 5 coaxial submarine cables; tropospheric scatter to Sudan; microwave radio relay to Israel; a participant in Medarabtel and a signatory to Project Oxygen (a global submarine fiber-optic cable system)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 42 (plus 15 repeaters), FM 14, shortwave 3 (1999)

Radios: 20.5 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:98 (September 1995)

Televisions: 7.7 million (1997)

Transportation

Railways:
total:4,955 km
standard gauge: 4,955 km 1,435-m gauge (42 km electrified; 1,560 km double-track) (2000 est.)

Highways:
total: 64,000 km
paved: 50,000 km
unpaved : 14,000 km (1996)

Waterways: 3,500 km (including the Nile, Lake Nasser, Alexandria-Cairo Waterway, and numerous smaller canals in the delta); Suez Canal, 193.5 km long (including approaches), used by oceangoing vessels drawing up to 16.1 m of water

Pipelines: crude oil 1,171 km; petroleum products 596 km; natural gas 460 km

Ports and harbors: Alexandria, Al Ghardaqah, Aswan, Asyut, Bur Safajah, Damietta, Marsa Matruh, Port Said, Suez

Merchant marine:
total:175 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,331,186 GRT/1,987,964 DWT
ships by type:bulk 23, cargo 58, container 2, liquefied gas 1, passenger 61, petroleum tanker 14, roll on/roll off 13, short-sea passenger 3

Airports: 92 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:
total:72
over 3,047 m:13
2,438 to 3,047 m : 37
1,524 to 2,437 m: 17
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 3 (2001)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total : 20
2,438 to 3,047 m:1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 7
under 914 m:10 (2001)

Heliports: 2 (2001)

Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Air Defense Command

Military manpower - military age:20 years of age (2002 est.)

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 19,030,030 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 12,320,902 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 712,983 (2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:$4.04 billion (FY99/00)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 4.1% (FY99/00)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international:Egypt and Sudan each claim to administer triangular areas which extend north and south of the 1899 Treaty boundary along the 22nd Parallel (in the north, the "Hala'ib Triangle", is the largest with 20,580 sq km); in 2001, the two states agreed to discuss an "area of integration" and withdraw military forces in the overlapping areas

Illicit drugs: a transit point for Southwest Asian and Southeast Asian heroin and opium moving to Europe and the US; popular transit stop for Nigerian couriers; large domestic consumption of hashish from Lebanon and Syria