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Countries > Ecuador Ecuador Flag

Languages   3 languages are spoken in Ecuador. We have 2007 products available for those languages.

Capital: Quito
Population: 11,460,000
Click to Listen Play the National Anthem
Ecuador Map


Location: Western South America, bordering the Pacific Ocean at the Equator, between Colombia and Peru

Geographic coordinates: 2 00 S, 77 30 W

Map references: South America

total : 283,560 sq km
land: 276,840 sq km
water: 6,720 sq km
note: includes Galapagos Islands

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Nevada

Land boundaries:
total: 2,010 km
border countries: Colombia 590 km, Peru 1,420 km

Coastline: 2,237 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: claims continental shelf between mainland and Galapagos Islands
territorial sea: 200 nm

Climate: tropical along coast becoming cooler inland

Terrain: coastal plain (costa), inter-Andean central highlands (sierra), and flat to rolling eastern jungle (oriente)

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Chimborazo 6,267 m

Natural resources: petroleum, fish, timber

Land use:
arable land: 6%
permanent crops: 5%
other: 89% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land:8,650 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards: frequent earthquakes, landslides, volcanic activity; periodic droughts

Environment - current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; water pollution; pollution from oil production wastes

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified : none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: Cotopaxi in Andes is highest active volcano in world


Population:13,447,494 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years:35.4% (male 2,415,764; female 2,337,095)
15-64 years: 60.2% (male 4,007,495; female 4,090,957)
65 years and over :4.4% (male 276,482; female 319,701) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.96% (2002 est.)

Birth rate: 25.47 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate: 5.36 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.53 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over:0.86 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 33.02 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 71.61 years
male: 68.79 years
female:74.57 years (2002 est.)

Total fertility rate:3.05 children born/woman (2002 est.)

noun: Ecuadorian(s)
adjective: Ecuadorian

Ethnic groups: mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 65%, Amerindian 25%, Spanish and others 7%, black 3%

Religions: Roman Catholic 95%

Languages: Spanish (official), Amerindian languages (especially Quechua)

definition : age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 90.1%
male: 92%
female: 88.2% (1995 est.)


Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Ecuador
conventional short form: Ecuador
local long form: Republica del Ecuador
local short form : Ecuador

Data code: EC

Government type: republic

National capital: Quito

Administrative divisions: 22 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Azuay, Bolivar, Canar, Carchi, Chimborazo, Cotopaxi, El Oro, Esmeraldas, Galapagos, Guayas, Imbabura, Loja, Los Rios, Manabi, Morona-Santiago, Napo, Orellana, Pastaza, Pichincha, Sucumbios, Tungurahua, Zamora-Chinchipe

Independence: 24 May 1822 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 10 August (1809) (independence of Quito)

Constitution: 10 August 1998

Legal system: based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal, compulsory for literate persons ages 18-65, optional for other eligible voters

Executive branch:
chief of state:President Gustavo NOBOA Bejarano (since 22 January 2000) selected president following coup that deposed President Jamil MAHUAD; Vice President Pedro PINTO Rubianes (since 28 January 2000) elected by National Congress from a slate of candidates submitted by President NOBOA; note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government elections: formerly, the president and vice president were elected on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year term (no reelection); election last held 31 May 1998; runoff election held 12 July 1998 (next to be held 20 October 2002)
head of government:President Gustavo NOBOA Bejarano (since 22 January 2000) selected president following coup that deposed President Jamil MAHUAD; Vice President Pedro PINTO Rubianes (since 28 January 2000) elected by National Congress from a slate of candidates submitted by President NOBOA; note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet : Cabinet appointed by the president
elections:formerly, the president and vice president were elected on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year term (no reelection); election last held 31 May 1998; runoff election held 12 July 1998 (next to be held 20 October 2002)
election results :results of the last election prior to the coup were: Jamil MAHUAD elected president; percent of vote - 51%
note: a military-indigenous coup toppled democratically-elected President Jamil MAHAUD on 21 January 2000; the military quickly handed power over to Vice President Gustavo NOBOA on 22 January 2000; National Congress then elected a new vice president from a slate of candidates submitted by NOBOA; the new administration is scheduled to complete the remainder of MAHAUD's term, due to expire in January 2003

Legislative branch:unicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional (123 seats; 20 members are popularly elected at-large nationally to serve four-year terms; 103 members are popularly elected by province to serve four-year terms) )
elections :last held 31 May 1998 (next to be held 20 October 2002)
election results:percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - DP 32, PSC 27, PRE 24, ID 18, P-NP 9, FRA 5, PCE 3, MPD 2, CFP 1; note - defections by members of National Congress are commonplace, resulting in frequent changes in the numbers of seats held by the various parties

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema), judges are elected by Congress

Political parties and leaders: Concentration of Popular Forces or CFP [Averroes BUCARAM]; Democratic Left or ID [Rodrigo BORJA Cevallos]; Ecuadorian Conservative Party or PCE [Jacinto JIJON Y CAMANO]; Independent National Movement or MIN [Eliseo AZUERO]; Pachakutik-New Country or P-NP [Miguel LLUCO]; Popular Democracy or DP [Dr. Juan Manuel FUERTES]; Popular Democratic Movement or MPD [Gustavo TERAN Acosta]; Radical Alfarista Front or FRA [Fabian ALARCON, director]; Roldosist Party or PRE [Abdala BUCARAM Ortiz, director]; Social Christian Party or PSC [Pascual DEL CIOPPO]

International organization participation: BCIE, CACM, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, LAES, LAIA (observer), MINURSO, NAM (observer), OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Political pressure groups and leaders:Confederation of Indigenous Nationalities of Ecuador or CONAIE [Leonidas IZA, president]; Coordinator of Social Movements or CMS [F. Napoleon SANTOS]; Federation of Indigenous Evangelists of Ecuador or FEINE [Marco MURILLO, president]; National Federation of Indigenous Afro-Ecuatorianos and Peasants or FENOCIN [Pedro DE LA CRUZ, president]; Popular Front or FP [Luis VILLACIS]

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission : Ambassador Ivonne A-BAKI
chancery: 2535 15th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 234-7200
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, Philadelphia, and San Francisco
consulate(s): Newark

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Larry L. PALMER
embassy: Avenida 12 de Octubre and Avenida Patria, Quito
mailing address: APO AA 34039
telephone : [593] (2) 562-890
FAX: [593] (2) 502-052
consulate(s) general: Guayaquil

Flag description: three horizontal bands of yellow (top, double width), blue, and red with the coat of arms superimposed at the center of the flag; similar to the flag of Colombia that is shorter and does not bear a coat of arms


Economy - overview:Ecuador has substantial oil resources and rich agricultural areas. Because the country exports primary products such as oil, bananas, and shrimp, fluctuations in world market prices can have a substantial domestic impact. Ecuador joined the World Trade Organization in 1996, but has failed to comply with many of its accession commitments. The aftermath of El Nino and depressed oil market of 1997-98 drove Ecuador's economy into a free-fall in 1999. The beginning of 1999 saw the banking sector collapse, which helped precipitate an unprecedented default on external loans later that year. Continued economic instability drove a 70% depreciation of the currency throughout 1999, which forced a desperate government to "dollarize" the currency regime in 2000. The move stabilized the currency, but did not stave off the ouster of the government. Gustavo NOBOA, who assumed the presidency in January 2000, has managed to pass substantial economic reforms and mend relations with international financial institutions. Ecuador completed its first standby agreement since 1986 when the IMF Board approved a 10 December 2001 disbursement of $96 million, the final installment of a $300 million standby credit agreement.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $39.6 billion (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 4.3% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $3,000 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture :11%
services:64% (2000 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 22% (2001 est.)

Labor force:
total: 3.7 million (urban)
by occupation:agriculture 30%, industry 25%, services 45% (2001 est.)

Unemployment rate:14%; note - widespread underemployment (2001 est.) Budget:
revenues: $5.6 billion
expenditures:planned $5.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2001 est.)

Industries: petroleum, food processing, textiles, metal work, paper products, wood products, chemicals, plastics, fishing, lumber

Industrial production growth rate: 5.1% (2001 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 2.754 million kW (1996)

Electricity - production: 10.395 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 600 kWh (1996)

Agriculture - products: bananas, coffee, cocoa, rice, potatoes, manioc, plantains, sugarcane; cattle, sheep, pigs, beef, pork, dairy products; balsa wood; fish, shrimp

total value:$4.8 billion (2001 est.)
commodities: machinery and equipment, chemicals, raw materials, fuels; consumer goods
partners : US 38%, Peru 6%, Chile 5%, Colombia 5%, Italy 3% (2000)

total value:$4.8 billion (2001 est.)
commodities: transport equipment, consumer goods, vehicles, machinery, chemicals
partners:US 25%, Colombia 13%, Japan 8%, Venezuela 8%, Brazil 4% (2000)

Debt - external: $14 billion (2001)

Economic aid:
recipient:$120 million (2001)
note: received $12.7 million from the US and $160 million from other countries in 1995

Currency: 1 sucre (S/) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates:sucres per US dollar - 25,000.0 (January 2002), 25,000.0 (2001), 24,988.4 (2000), 11,786.8 (1999), 5,446.6 (1998), 3,988.3 (1997)
note: on 13 March 2000, the National Congress approved a new exchange system whereby the US dollar was adopted as the main legal tender in Ecuador for all purposes; on 20 March 2000, the Central Bank of Ecuador started to exchange sucres for US dollars at a fixed rate of 25,000 sucres per US dollar; since 30 April 2000, all transactions are denominated in US dollars

Fiscal year: calendar year


Telephones: 1,115,272 (1999)

Telephone system: generally elementary but being expanded
domestic: facilities generally inadequate and unreliable
international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations:AM 392, FM 35, shortwave 29 (2001)

Radios: 5 million (2001)

Television broadcast stations: 7 (plus 14 repeaters) (2001)

Televisions: 2.5 million (2001)


total: 965 km
narrow gauge: 965 km 1.067-m gauge(2000 est.)

total : 43,197 km
paved: 8,165 km
unpaved:35,032 km (2001)

Waterways: 1,500 km

Pipelines: crude oil 800 km; petroleum products 1,358 km

Ports and harbors: Esmeraldas, Guayaquil, La Libertad, Manta, Puerto Bolivar, San Lorenzo

Merchant marine:
total:33 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 239,876 GRT/393,680 DWT
ships by type: cargo 2, chemical tanker 3, liquefied gas 1, passenger 3, petroleum tanker 23, specialized tanker 1

Airports: 205 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 61
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m : 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 18
914 to 1,523 m: 17
under 914 m: 19 (2001)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total : 144
914 to 1,523 m: 31
under 914 m: 113 (2001)

Heliports: 1 (2001)


Military branches: Army, Navy (including Marines), Air Force, National Police

Military manpower - military age: 20 years of age (2002 est.)

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49 : 3,468,678 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males:3,468,678 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 132,978 (2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $720 million (FY98)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 3.4% (FY98)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: three sections of the boundary with Peru are in dispute

Illicit drugs: significant transit country for derivatives of coca originating in Colombia, Bolivia, and Peru; minor illicit producer of coca; importer of precursor chemicals used in production of illicit narcotics; important money-laundering hub

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