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Countries > Brunei Brunei Flag
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Capital: Bandar Seri Begawan
Population: 307,616
Description: The official language is Malay, but English and Chinese are also widely spoken.
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Brunei Map

Geography

Location: Southeastern Asia, bordering the South China Sea and Malaysia

Geographic coordinates: 4 30 N, 114 40 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area:
total: 5,770 sq km
land : 5,270 sq km
water: 500 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Delaware

Land boundaries:
total: 381 km
border countries: Malaysia 381 km

Coastline: 161 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm or to median line
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; hot, humid, rainy

Terrain: flat coastal plain rises to mountains in east; hilly lowland in west

Elevation extremes:
lowest point : South China Sea 0 m
highest point: Bukit Pagon 1,850 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, timber

Land use:
arable land : 1%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 1%
forests and woodland: 85%
other: 12% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 10 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: typhoons, earthquakes, and severe flooding are very rare

Environment - current issues: NA

Environment - international agreements:
party to : Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: close to vital sea lanes through South China Sea linking Indian and Pacific Oceans; two parts physically separated by Malaysia; almost an enclave of Malaysia

People

Population: 343,653 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 30.77% (male 53,977; female 51,772)
15-64 years: 66.52% (male 121,601; female 107,007)
65 years and over: 2.71% (male 4,449; female 4,847) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate:2.11% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 20.45 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 3.38 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 4.07 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.14 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.92 male(s)/female
total population: 1.1 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 14.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 73.82 years
male: 71.45 years
female: 76.31 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate:2.44 children born/woman (2001 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Bruneian(s)
adjective: Bruneian

Ethnic groups: Malay 67%, Chinese 15%, indigenous 6%, other 12%

Religions: Muslim (official) 67%, Buddhist 13%, Christian 10%, indigenous beliefs and other 10%

Languages: Malay (official), English, Chinese

Literacy:
definition : age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 88.2%
male: 92.6%
female: 83.4% (1995 est.)

Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Negara Brunei Darussalam
conventional short form: Brunei

Data code: BX

Government type: constitutional sultanate

National capital: Bandar Seri Begawan

Administrative divisions: 4 districts (daerah-daerah, singular - daerah); Belait, Brunei and Muara, Temburong, Tutong

Independence: 1 January 1984 (from UK)

National holiday: National Day, 23 February (1984)

Constitution: 29 September 1959 (some provisions suspended under a State of Emergency since December 1962, others since independence on 1 January 1984)

Legal system: based on Islamic law

Suffrage: none

Executive branch:
chief of state: Sultan and Prime Minister His Majesty Paduka Seri Baginda Sultan Haji HASSANAL Bolkiah Mu'izzaddin Waddaulah (since 5 October 1967); note - the sultan is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: Sultan and Prime Minister His Majesty Paduka Seri Baginda Sultan Haji HASSANAL Bolkiah Mu'izzaddin Waddaulah (since 5 October 1967); note - the sultan is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Council of Cabinet Ministers appointed and presided over by the sultan; deals with executive matters
note: there is also a Religious Council (members appointed by the sultan) that advises on religious matters, a Privy Council (members appointed by the sultan) that deals with constitutional matters, and the Council of Succession (members appointed by the sultan) that determines the succession to the throne if the need arises
elections: none; the sultan is a traditional Islamic monarch

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Council or Majlis Masyuarat Megeri (a privy council that serves only in a consultative capacity; NA seats; members appointed by the sultan)
elections: last held in March 1962
note: in 1970 the Council was changed to an appointive body by decree of the sultan; an elected Legislative Council is being considered as part of constitutional reform, but elections are unlikely for several years.

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, chief justice and judges are sworn in by the sultan for three-year terms

Political parties and leaders:Brunei Solidarity National Party or PPKB in Malay [Haji Mohd HATTA bin Haji Zainal Abidin, president]; the PPKB is the only legal political party in Brunei; it was registered in 1985, but became largely inactive after 1988, it was revived in 1995 and again in 1998; it has less than 200 registered party members; other parties include Brunei People's Party or PRB (banned in 1962) and Brunei National Democratic Party (registered in May 1965, deregistered by the Brunei Government in 1988)

International organization participation: APEC, ASEAN, C, CCC, ESCAP, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDB, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, Mekong Group, NAM, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador-PUTEH ibni Mohammad Alam
chancery: Watergate, Suite 300, 3rd floor, 2600 Virginia Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20037
telephone: [1] (202) 342-0159
FAX: [1] (202) 342-0158

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Sylvia Gaye STANFIELD
embassy: Third Floor, Teck Guan Plaza, Jalan Sultan, Bandar Seri Begawan
mailing address : American Embassy Box B, Bandar Seri Begawan, APO AP 96440
telephone: [673] (2) 229670
FAX: [673] (2) 225293

Flag description: yellow with two diagonal bands of white (top, almost double width) and black starting from the upper hoist side; the national emblem in red is superimposed at the center; the emblem includes a swallow-tailed flag on top of a winged column within an upturned crescent above a scroll and flanked by two upraised hands.

Economy

Economy - overview: This small, wealthy economy is a mixture of foreign and domestic entrepreneurship, government regulation and welfare measures, and village tradition. It is almost totally supported by exports of crude oil and natural gas, with revenues from the petroleum sector accounting for perhaps half of GDP. Per capita GDP is among the highest in the Third World, and substantial income from overseas investment supplements income from domestic production. The government provides for all medical services and subsidizes food and housing. The government is beginning to show progress on its basic policy of diversifying the economy away from oil and gas. Brunei's leaders are concerned that steadily increased integration in the world economy will undermine internal social cohesion.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $5.9 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 3% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $17,600 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture : 5%
industry: 46%
services: 49% (1996 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 1% (1999 est.)

Labor force:
total: 144,000 (1995 est.); note - includes foreign workers and military personnel
by occupation: government 48%, production of oil, natural gas, services, and construction 42%, agriculture, forestry, and fishing 4%, other 6% (1986 est.)
note : 33% of labor force is foreign (1988)

Unemployment rate: 4.9% (1995 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $2.5 billion
expenditures : $2.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $768 million (1997 est.)

Industries: petroleum, petroleum refining, liquefied natural gas, construction

Industrial production growth rate: 4% (1997 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 344,000 kW (1995)

Electricity - production: 2.445 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 2.274 billion kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: rice, cassava (tapioca), bananas; water buffalo, pigs

Exports:
total value : $2.55 billion (f.o.b., 1999 est.)
commodities: crude oil, liquefied natural gas, petroleum products
partners: JJapan 42%, US 17%, South Korea 14%, Thailand 3% (1999)

Imports:
total value: $1.3 billion (c.i.f., 1999 est.)
commodities : machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, food, chemicals
partners: Singapore 34%, UK 15%, Malaysia 15%, US 5% (1999)

Debt - external: $0

Economic aid: $4.3 million (1995)

Currency: 1 Bruneian dollar (B$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Bruneian dollars (B$) per US$1 - 1.4061 (January 1997), 1.4100 (1996), 1.4174 (1995), 1.5274 (1994), 1.6158 (1993), 1.6290 (1992); note - the Bruneian dollar is at par with the Singapore dollar

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 79,000 (1996)

Telephone system: service throughout country is excellent; international service good to Europe, US, and East Asia
domestic: every service available
international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean); digital submarine cable links to Malaysia, Singapore, and Philippines (2001)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 3, FM 10, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 329,000 (1998)

Television broadcast stations: 2 (1997)

Televisions: 201,900 (1998)

Transportation

Railways:
total: 13 km (private line)
narrow gauge: 13 km 0.610-m gauge

Highways:
total: 1,712 km
paved: 1,284 km
unpaved : 428 km (1996)

Waterways: 209 km; navigable by craft drawing less than 1.2 m

Pipelines: crude oil 135 km; petroleum products 418 km; natural gas 920 km

Ports and harbors: Bandar Seri Begawan, Kuala Belait, Muara, Seria, Tutong

Merchant marine:
total: 7 liquefied gas tankers (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 348,476 GRT/340,635 DWT (1996 est.)

Airports: 2 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 1
over 3,047 m: 1 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 2000 est.)

Heliports: 3 (2000 est.)

Military

Military branches: Land Forces, Navy, Air Force, Royal Brunei Police

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 106,725 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 61,640 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 3,005 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:$343 million (FY98)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 5.1% (FY98)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: may wish to purchase the Malaysian salient that divides the country; all of the Spratly Islands are claimed by China, Taiwan, and Vietnam; of them are claimed by Malaysia and the Philippines; in 1984, Brunei established an exclusive fishing zone that encompasses Louisa Reef, but has not publicly claimed the island.