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Capital: Yerevan
Population: 1,240,385
Description: Armenian is spoken by the great majority of the population. Russian speakers number about 50,000.
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Armenia Map


Current issues: Armenia's leaders remain preoccupied by Armenia's nine-year old conflict with Azerbaijan over the Nagorno-Karabakh enclave. Although a cease-fire has been in effect since May 1994, the sides have not made substantial progress toward a peaceful resolution. President TER-PETROSSIAN's latitude on the issue may be further constrained by his controversial reelection in September 1996. When supporters of the main opposition candidate stormed the parliament following the announcement of TER-PETROSSIAN's victory, MVD forces were called in to restore order. The subsequent political standoff between government and opposition supporters diminished in late 1996 as the government has gradually attempted reconciliation. Despite these political problems, the Armenian government has been pursuing its aggressive economic reform program, although implementation of its privatization program stalled in late 1996.


Location: Southwestern Asia, east of Turkey

Geographic coordinates: 40 00 N, 45 00 E

Map references: Commonwealth of Independent States

total : 29,800 sq km
land: 28,400 sq km
water: 1,400 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Maryland

Land boundaries:
total: 1,254 km
border countries: Azerbaijan-proper 566 km, Azerbaijan-Naxcivan exclave 221 km, Georgia 164 km, Iran 35 km, Turkey 268 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: highland continental, hot summers, cold winters

Terrain: high Armenian Plateau with mountains; little forest land; fast flowing rivers; good soil in Aras River valley

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Debed River 400 m
highest point: Aragats Lerr 4,095 m

Natural resources: small deposits of gold, copper, molybdenum, zinc, alumina

Land use:
arable land : 17%
permanent crops: 3%
permanent pastures: 24%
forests and woodland: 15%
other: 41% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 2,870 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: occasionally severe earthquakes; droughts

Environment - current issues: soil pollution from toxic chemicals such as DDT; energy blockade, the result of conflict with Azerbaijan, has led to deforestation when citizens scavenged for firewood; pollution of Hrazdan (Razdan) and Aras Rivers; the draining of Sevana Lich, a result of its use as a source for hydropower, threatens drinking water supplies; restart of Metsamor nuclear power plant without adequate (IAEA-recommended) safety and backup systems

Environment - international agreements:
party to : Biodiversity, Climate Change, Nuclear Test Ban, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Desertification

Geography - note: landlocked


Population: 3,336,100 (July 2001 est

Age structure:
0-14 years: 23.23% (male 394,194; female 380,911)
15-64 years: 15-64 years: 67.04% (male 1,094,646; female 1,141,760)
65 years and over:9.73% (male 135,477; female 189,112) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: -0.21% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 11.47 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 9.74 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: -3.87 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate:41.27 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population:66.49 years
male: 62.12 years
female: 71.08 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.5 children born/woman (2001 est.)

noun: Armenian(s)
adjective: Armenian

Ethnic groups: Armenian 93%, Azeri 3%, Russian 2%, other (mostly Yezidi Kurds) 2% (1989)
note: as of the end of 1993, virtually all Azeris had emigrated from Armenia

Religions: Armenian Orthodox 94%

Languages: Armenian 96%, Russian 2%, other 2%

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99%
male: 99%
female : 98% (1989 est.)


Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Armenia
conventional short form: Armenia
local long form : Hayastani Hanrapetut'yun
local short form: Hayastan
former : Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic; Armenian Republic

Data code: AM

Government type: republic

National capital: Yerevan

Administrative divisions: 10 provinces (marzer, singular - marz) and 1 city* (k'aghak'ner, singular - k'aghak'); Aragatsotn, Ararat, Armavir, Geghark'unik', Kotayk', Lorri, Shirak, Syunik', Tavush, Vayots' Dzor, Yerevan*

Independence: 28 May 1918 (First Armenian Republic); 23 September 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: Referendum Day, 21 September

Constitution: adopted by nationwide referendum 5 July 1995

Legal system: based on civil law system

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state :President Robert KOCHARIAN (since 30 March 1998)
head of government: Prime Minister Andranik MARKARYAN (since 12 May 2000)
cabinet : Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; special election last held 30 March 1998 (next to be held NA March 2003); prime minister appointed by the president
election results:Robert KOCHARIAN elected president; percent of vote - Robert KOCHARIAN 59.5%, Karen DEMIRCHYAN 40.5%

Legislative branch:unicameral National Assembly (Parliament) or Azgayin Zhoghov (131 seats; members serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 30 May 1999 (next to be held in the spring of 2003
election results : percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - unity bloc 61 (Republican Party 41, People's Party of Armenia 20), Stability Group (independent Armenian deputies who have formed a bloc) 21, ACP 10, ARF (Dashnak) 8, Law and Unity Party 7, NDU 6, Law-Governed Party 6, independents 10, unfilled 2; note - seats by party change frequently

Judicial branch: Supreme Court; Constitutional Court

Political parties and leaders:
Armenia Party [Myasnik ALKHASYAN]; Armenian Communist Party or ACP [Vladimir DARBINYAN]; Armenian Revolutionary Federation ("Dashnak" Party) or ARF [Hrant MARKARYAN]; Christian Democratic Union or CDU [Azat ARSHAKYN, chairman]; Democratic Liberal Party [Ramkavar AZATAKAN, chairman]; Free Armenian's Mission [Ruben MNATSANIAN, chairman]; Law and Unity Party [Artashes GEGAMIAN, chairman]; Law-Governed Party [Artur BAGDASARIAN, chairman]; Mission Party [Artush PAPOIAN, chairman]; National Democratic Union or NDU [Vazgen MANUKIAN]; National State Party [Samvel SHAGINIAN]; Pan-Armenian National Movement or PANM [Vano SIRADEGHYAN]; People's Party of Armenia [Stepan DEMIRCHYAN]; Republican Party or RPA [Andranik MARKARYAN]; Shamiram Women's Movement or SWM [Gayane SARUKHYAN]; Social Democratic (Hnchakian) Party [Ernst SOGOMONYAN]; Stability Group [Vartan AYVAZIAN, chairman]; Union of National Self-Determination or NSDU [Paruir HAIRIKIAN, chairman]; Unity Bloc [Stepan DEMIRCHIAN and Andranik MARKARYAN] (a coalition of the Republican Party and People's Party of Armenia)

International organization participation: BSEC, CCC, CE (guest), CIS, EBRD, ECE, ESCAP, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NACC, NAM (observer), OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Arman KIRAKOSIAN
chancery: 2225 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 319-1976
FAX : [1] (202) 319-2982
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Michael C. LEMMON
embassy: 18 Gen Bagramian, Yerevan
mailing address : use embassy street address
telephone: [374] (2) 151-144, 524-661
FAX: [374] (2) 151-550

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), blue, and gold


Economy - overview: Under the old Soviet central planning system, Armenia had developed a modern industrial sector, supplying machine building tools, textiles, and other manufactured goods to sister republics in exchange for raw materials and energy. Since the implosion of the USSR in December 1991, Armenia has switched to small-scale agriculture away from the large agroindustrial complexes of the Soviet area. The privatization of industry has been at a much slower pace. Armenia is a food importer and its mineral deposits (gold, bauxite) are small. The ongoing conflict with Azerbaijan over the ethnic Armenian-dominated region of Nagorno-Karabakh and the embargoes imposed by Azerbaijan and Turkey contributed to a severe economic decline in the early 1990s. By 1994, however, the Armenian Government had launched an ambitious IMF-sponsored economic program that has resulted in positive growth rates in 1995 and 1996. Armenia also managed to slash inflation and to privatize most small and medium-sized enterprises. The chronic energy shortages Armenia suffered in recent years has been partially offset by the energy supplied by one of its nuclear power plants at Metsamor, which in 1996 supplied about 40% of the country's energy needs, according to the Armenian Government. Moreover, Armenia is expanding its energy imports from Iran.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $10 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:5% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity -$3,000 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
industry: 25%
services : 35% (1999 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 1% (1999 est.)

Labor force:
total : 1.5 million (1999)
by occupation:agriculture 55%, services 25%, industry 20% (1999 est.)

Unemployment rate:20% (1998 est.)

revenues : $360 million
expenditures: $566 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1999 est.)

Industries: much of industry is shut down; metal-cutting machine tools, forging-pressing machines, electric motors, tires, knitted wear, hosiery, shoes, silk fabric, washing machines, chemicals, trucks, watches, instruments, microelectronics

Industrial production growth rate:5% (2000 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 2.77 million kW (1994)

Electricity - production:6.668 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 6.201 billion kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: fruit (especially grapes), vegetables; vineyards near Yerevan are famous for brandy and other liqueurs; minor livestock sector

total value :$284 million (f.o.b., 2000 est.)
commodities: gold and jewelry, aluminum, transport equipment, electrical equipment, scrap metal
partners:Belgium 36%, Iran 15%, Russia 14%, US 7%, Turkmenistan, Georgia (1999)

total value : $913 million (f.o.b., 2000 est.)
commodities: grain, other foods, fuel, other energy
partners:Russia 17%, US 11%, Belgium 11%, Iran 10%, UK, Turkey (1999)

Debt - external: $836 million (January 2001)

Economic aid:
recipient: $245.5 million (1995)
note: commitments (excluding Russia), $1,385 million ($675 million in disbursements) (1992-95)

Currency: 1 dram = 100 luma (introduced new currency in November 1993)

Exchange rates: drams per US dollar - 554.29 (1 February 2001), 539.53 (2000), 535.06 (1999), 504.92 (1998), 490.85 (1997), 414.04 (1996)

Fiscal year: calendar year


Telephones: 568,000 (1997)

Telephone system:system inadequate; now 90% privately owned and undergoing modernization and expansion
domestic:the majority of subscribers and the most modern equipment are in Yerevan (this includes paging and mobile cellular service)
international :Yerevan is connected to the Trans-Asia-Europe fiber-optic cable through Iran; additional international service is available by microwave radio relay and landline connections to the other countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States and through the Moscow international switch and by satellite to the rest of the world; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat

Radio broadcast stations:AM 9, FM 6, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios:850,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 4 (1998)
note: 100% of population receives Armenian and Russian TV programs

Televisions:825,000 (1997)


total: 825 km in common carrier service; does not include industrial lines
broad gauge: 825 km 1.520-m gauge (1992)

total : 7,720 km
paved: 7,496 km
unpaved: 224 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: NA km

Pipelines: natural gas 900 km (1991)

Ports and harbors: none

Airports: 7 (2000 est.)

total: 7
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m:3
under 914 m: 1 (2000 est.)


Military branches: Army, Air Force, Air Defense Force, Security Forces (internal and border troops)

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 905,154 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 715,734 (2001

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 34,998 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure:$75 million (FY99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:4% (FY99)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Armenia supports ethnic Armenians in the Nagorno-Karabakh region of Azerbaijan in the longstanding, separatist conflict against the Azerbaijani Government; traditional demands on former Armenian lands in Turkey have subsided

Illicit drugs: illicit cultivator of cannabis mostly for domestic consumption; used as a transshipment point for illicit drugs to Western Europe and the US

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