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Countries > Antigua Antigua Flag
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Capital: Saint John's
Population: 66,175
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Antigua Map

Geography

Location: Caribbean, islands between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, east-southeast of Puerto Rico

Geographic coordinates: 17 03 N, 61 48 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total: 440 sq km
land: 440 sq km
water: 0 sq km
note: includes Redonda

Area - comparative: 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 153 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf : 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical marine; little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: mostly low-lying limestone and coral islands with some higher volcanic areas

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: Boggy Peak 402 m

Natural resources: negligible; pleasant climate fosters tourism

Land use:
arable land : 18%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 9%
forests and woodland: 11%
other: 62% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: hurricanes and tropical storms (July to October); periodic droughts

Environment - current issues: water management - a major concern because of limited natural fresh water resources - is further hampered by the clearing of trees to increase crop production, causing rainfall to run off quickly

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Desertification

People

Population: 63,739 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 26% (male 8,514; female 8,221)
15-64 years: 68% (male 21,499; female 21,891)
65 years and over : 6% (male 1,571; female 2,043) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.44% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 17.27 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 5.98 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -6.95 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth : 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 22 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 70.93 years
male : 68.58 years
female: 73.4 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.76 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Antiguan(s), Barbudan(s)
adjective: Antiguan, Barbudan

Ethnic groups: black, British, Portuguese, Lebanese, Syrian

Religions: Anglican (predominant), other Protestant sects, some Roman Catholic

Languages: English (official), local dialects

Literacy:
definition : age 15 and over has completed five or more years of schooling
total population: 89%
male: 90%
female: 88% (1960 est.)

Government

Country name:
conventional long form : none
conventional short form: Antigua and Barbuda

Data code: AC

Government type: parliamentary democracy

National capital: Saint John's

Administrative divisions: 6 parishes and 2 dependencies*; Barbuda*, Redonda*, Saint George, Saint John, Saint Mary, Saint Paul, Saint Peter, Saint Philip

Independence: 1 November 1981 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 1 November (1981)

Constitution: 1 November 1981

Legal system: based on English common law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II of the UK (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General James B. CARLISLE (since NA 1993)
head of government: Prime Minister Lester Bryant BIRD (since 8 March 1994)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister
elections: none; the queen is a hereditary monarch; governor general chosen by the queen on the advice of the prime minister; prime minister appointed by the governor general

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (17-member body appointed by the governor general) and the House of Representatives (17 seats; members are elected by proportional representation to serve 5-year terms)
elections: House of Representatives - last held 8 March 1994 (next to be held NA 1999)
election results : percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - ALP 11, UPP 5, independent 1

Judicial branch: Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (based in Saint Lucia), one judge of the Supreme Court is a resident of the islands and presides over the Court of Summary Jurisdiction

Political parties and leaders: Antigua Labor Party or ALP [Lester Bryant BIRD]; United Progressive Party or UPP [Baldwin SPENCER], a coalition of three opposition political parties - the United National Democratic Party or UNDP; the Antigua Caribbean Liberation Movement or ACLM; and the Progressive Labor Movement or PLM

Political pressure groups and leaders: Antigua Trades and Labor Union or ATLU [William ROBINSON]; People's Democratic Movement or PDM [Hugh MARSHALL]

International organization participation: ACP, C, Caricom, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, ISO (subscriber), ITU, NAM (observer), OAS, OECS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Lionel Alexander HURST
chancery: 3216 New Mexico Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20016
telephone: [1] (202) 362-5211, 5166, 5122
FAX : [1] (202) 362-5225
consulate(s) general: Miami

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy in Antigua and Barbuda (embassy closed 30 June 1994); the US Ambassador to Barbados is accredited to Antigua and Barbuda

Flag description: red with an inverted isosceles triangle based on the top edge of the flag; the triangle contains three horizontal bands of black (top), light blue, and white with a yellow rising sun in the black band

Economy

Economy - overview: Tourism continues to be by far the dominant activity in the economy but the combined share in GDP of transport and communications, trade, and public utilities has increased markedly in recent years. Tourism's direct contribution to output in 1994 was about 20%. In addition, increased tourist arrivals helped spur growth in the construction and transport sectors. The dual island nation's agricultural production is mainly directed to the domestic market; the sector is constrained by the limited water supply and labor shortages that reflect the pull of higher wages in tourism and construction. Manufacturing comprises enclave-type assembly for export with major products being bedding, handicrafts, and electronic components. Prospects for economic growth in the medium term will continue to depend on income growth in the industrialized world, especially in the US, which accounts for about half of all tourist arrivals.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $446 million (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 4.7% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $6,800 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture : 3.5%
industry: 19.3%
services: 77.2% (1994 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 4% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total: 30,000
by occupation : commerce and services 82%, agriculture 11%, industry 7% (1983)

Unemployment rate: 5%-10%(1995 est.)

Budget:
revenues : $134 million
expenditures: $135.4 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1995)

Industries: tourism, construction, light manufacturing (clothing, alcohol, household appliances)

Industrial production growth rate: NA

Electricity - capacity: 54,000 kW (1995)

Electricity - production: NA kWh

Electricity - consumption per capita: NA kWh

Agriculture - products: cotton, fruits, vegetables, bananas, coconuts, cucumbers, mangoes, sugarcane; livestock

Exports:
total value: $45 million (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: petroleum products 48%, manufactures 23%, food and live animals 4%, machinery and transport equipment 17%
partners: OECS 26%, Barbados 15%, Guyana 4%, Trinidad and Tobago 2%, US 0.3%

Imports:
total value: $350.8 million (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: food and live animals, machinery and transport equipment, manufactures, chemicals, oil
partners: US 27%, UK 16%, Canada 4%, OECS 3%, other 50%

Debt - external: $435 million (1996 est.)

Economic aid: $NA

Currency: 1 EC dollar (EC$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1 - 2.70 (February 1997; fixed rate since 1976)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

Communications

Telephones: 6,700

Telephone system:
domestic: good automatic telephone system
international: 1 coaxial submarine cable; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); tropospheric scatter to Saba (Netherlands Antilles) and Guadeloupe

Radio broadcast stations: AM 4, FM 2, shortwave 2

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 2

Televisions: 28,000 (1993 est.)

Transportation

Railways:
total: 77 km
narrow gauge: 64 km 0.760-m gauge; 13 km 0.610-m gauge (used almost exclusively for handling sugarcane)

Highways:
total: 245 km (1995 est.)
paved : NA km
unpaved: NA km

Ports and harbors: Saint John's

Merchant marine:
total: 419 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,965,180 GRT/2,637,644 DWT
ships by type: bulk 9, cargo 285, chemical tanker 6, combination bulk 1, container 83, liquefied gas tanker 1, oil tanker 4, refrigerated cargo 11, roll-on/roll-off cargo 19
note : a flag of convenience registry: Germany owns 13 ships, Slovenia 3, Croatia 1, Cyprus 1, and US 1 (1996 est.)

Airports: 3 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
under 914 m : 2 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Royal Antigua and Barbuda Defense Force, Royal Antigua and Barbuda Police Force (includes the Coast Guard)

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: NA

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: NA

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $1.4 million (FY90/91)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1% (FY90/91)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: considered a long-time but relatively minor transshipment point for narcotics bound for the US and Europe and recent transshipment point for heroin from Europe to the US; potentially more significant as a drug money-laundering center